ChemSpider 2D Image | Ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate | C10H12O4

Ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate

  • Molecular FormulaC10H12O4
  • Average mass196.200 Da
  • Monoisotopic mass196.073563 Da
  • ChemSpider ID11541

More details:






Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

4-Hydroxy-3-méthoxybenzoate d'éthyle [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-, ethyl ester [ACD/Index Name]
Ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Ethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Ethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzolcarboxylat
[617-05-0]
210-503-9 [EINECS]
3-10-00-01413 [Beilstein]
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, ethyl ester
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid ethyl ester
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Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

AI3-06151 [DBID]
AIDS166466 [DBID]
AIDS-166466 [DBID]
BRN 2100025 [DBID]
NSC 8513 [DBID]
NSC8513 [DBID]
ZINC00394800 [DBID]
  • Experimental Physico-chemical Properties
  • Predicted Physico-chemical Properties
  • Miscellaneous
    • Safety:

      CAUTION: May irritate eyes, skin, and respiratory tract Alfa Aesar L05798
  • Gas Chromatography
    • Retention Index (Kovats):

      1569 (estimated with error: 89) NIST Spectra mainlib_233851, replib_8691
    • Retention Index (Normal Alkane):

      1574 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: HP-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Zhao, Y.; Li, J.; Xu, Y.; Duan, H.; Fan, W.; Zhao, G., EXtraction, preparation and identification of volatile compounds in Changyu XO brandy, Chinese J. Chromatogr., 26(2), 2008, 212-222.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1589 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40 0C (2 min) ^ 5 0C/min -> 80 0C ^ 7 oC/min -> 160 0C ^ 9 0C/min -> 200 0C ^ 20 0C/min -> 280 0C (10 min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: HP-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Zhao, Y.; Li, J.; Xu, Y.; Duan, H.; Fan, W.; Zhao, G., EXtraction, preparation and identification of volatile compounds in Changyu XO brandy, Chinese J. Chromatogr., 26(2), 2008, 212-222., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Guntert, M.; Rapp, A.; Takeoka, G.R.; Jennings, W., HRGC and HRGC-MS applied to wine constituents of lower volatility, Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 182(3), 1986, 200-204.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1582 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: Elite-5MS; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Tava, A.; Pecetti, L.; Ricci, M.; Pagnotta, M.A.; Russi, L., Volatile compounds from leaves and flowers of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirt. (Fabaceae) from Italy, Flavour Fragr. J., 22, 2007, 363-370.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1570 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Xu, Y.; Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Characterization of Aroma Compounds in Apple Cider Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 3051-3057.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1579 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40 C (5min) => 2C/min =>120C => 10 C/min => 210 C (30min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: MFE-73; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ferreira, V.; Aznar, M.; Lopez, R.; Cacho, J., Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality spanish aged red wines, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 4818-4824., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(5min)=>2C/min=>120C=>10C/min=>210C(30min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: MFE-73; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Aznar, M.; Lopez, R.; Cacho, J.F.; Ferreira, V., Identification and quantification of impact odorants of aged red wines from Rioja. GC-olfactometry, quantitative GC-MS, and odor evaluation of HPLC fractions, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 2924-2929.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2654 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40 0C (3 min) ^ 10 0C/min -> 90 0C ^ 2 0C/min -> 230 0C (37 min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.50 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Loscos, N.; Hernandez-Orte, P.; Cacho, J.; Ferreira, V., Fate of grape flavor precursors during storage on yeast lees, J. Agric. Food Chem., 57(12), 2009, 5468-5479., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(3min) =>10C/min =>90C =>2C/min =>230C (37min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax Etr; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Loskos, N.; Hernandez-Orte, P.; Cacho, J.; Ferreira, V., Release and formation of varietal aroma compounds during alcoholic fermentation from nonfloral grape odorless flavor precursors fractions, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 6674-6684., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 100 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax Etr; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ibarz, M.J.; Ferreira, V.; Hernandez-Orte, P.; Loscos, N.; Cacho, J., Optimization and evaluation of a procedure for the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the aromas generated by fast acid hydrolysis of flavor precursors extracted from grapes, J. Chromatogr. A, 1116, 2006, 217-229.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2614 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 50 0C (2 min) ^ 6 0C/min -> 150 0C ^ 8 0C/min -> 230 0C (15 min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Tian, Y.; Zhang, X.; Huang, T.; Zou, K.; Zhou, J., Research advances on the essential oils from leaves of Eucalyptus, Food Fermentation Ind. (Chinese), 33(10), 2007, 143-147.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2676 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Xu, Y.; Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Characterization of Aroma Compounds in Apple Cider Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 3051-3057., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 60 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Aznar, M.; Lopez, R.; Cacho, J.F.; Ferreira, V., Identification and quantification of impact odorants of aged red wines from Rioja. GC-olfactometry, quantitative GC-MS, and odor evaluation of HPLC fractions, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 2924-2929., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 60 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ferreira, V.; Aznar, M.; Lopez, R.; Cacho, J., Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality spanish aged red wines, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 4818-4824.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2665 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Cullere, L.; Escudero, A.; Cacho, J.; Ferreira, V., Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium auality Spanish aged red wines, J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 2004, 1653-1660.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2668 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 220 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lopez, R.; Ezpeleta, E.; Sanchez, I.; Cacho, J.; Ferreira, V., Analysis of the aroma intensities of volatile compounds released from mild acid hydrolysates of odourless precursors extracted from Tempranillo and Grenache grapes using gas chromatography-olfactometry, Food Chem., 88, 2004, 95-103.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2661 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C(5min)=> 20C/min => 100C(1min)=> 3C/min => 190C(40min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: Nukol; Carrier gas: N2; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lopez, M.G.; Dufour, J.P., Chapter 6. Tequilas: charm analysis of Blanco, Teposado, and Anejo tequilas, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser., 782, 2001, 62-72.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2615 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 245 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Kotseridis, Y.; Baumes, R., Identification of impact odorants in Bordeaux red grape juice, in the commercial yeast used for its fermentation, and in the produced wine, J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 2000, 400-406.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2616 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.75 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 80 C; End T: 200 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: Supelcowax-10; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Miranda-Lopez, R.; Libbey, L.M.; Watson, B.T.; McDaniel, M.R., Research note. Identificatiohn of additional odor-active compounds in Pinot noir wines, Am. J. Enol. Vitic, 43(1), 1992, 90-92.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2623 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.75 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 80 C; End T: 200 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: Supelcowax-10; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Miranda-Lopez, R.; Libbey, L.M.; Watson, B.T.; McDaniel, M.R., Research note. Identificatiohn of additional odor-active compounds in Pinot noir wines, Am. J. Enol. Vitic, 43(1), 1992, 90-92.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2612 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 80C(5min) => 5C/min => 155C=>4C/min => 240C(30min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: Supelcowax-10; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Miranda-Lopez, R.; Libbey, L.M.; Watson, B.T.; McDaniel, M.R., Odor analysis of Pinot noir wines from grapes of different maturities by a gas chromatography-olfactometry technique (Osme), J. Food Sci., 57(4), 1992, 985-993.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Linear):

      1560 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-5; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Escudero, A.; Campo, E.; Farina, L.; Cacho, J.; Ferreira, V., Analytical Characterization of the Aroma of Five Premium Red Wines. Insights into the Role of Odor Families and the Concept of Fruitiness of Wines, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 4501-4510.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1574 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: N2; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Fang, Y.; Qian, M., Aroma compounds in Oregon Pinot Noir wine determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), Flavour Fragr. J., 20, 2005, 22-29.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2676 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3.5 K/min; Start T: 45 C; End T: 210 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 617050; Active phase: Innowax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Botelho, G.; Caldeira, I.; Mendes-Faia, A.; Climaco, M.C., Evaluation of two quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry methods for clonal red wines differentiation, Flavour Fragr. J., 22, 2007, 414-420.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2653 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(5min) =>4C/min =>100C6C/min =>136C =>3C/min =>220C (10min); CAS no: 617050; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Escudero, A.; Campo, E.; Farina, L.; Cacho, J.; Ferreira, V., Analytical Characterization of the Aroma of Five Premium Red Wines. Insights into the Role of Odor Families and the Concept of Fruitiness of Wines, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 4501-4510.) NIST Spectra nist ri

Predicted data is generated using the ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module

Density: 1.2±0.1 g/cm3
Boiling Point: 292.0±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Vapour Pressure: 0.0±0.6 mmHg at 25°C
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 55.3±3.0 kJ/mol
Flash Point: 122.4±15.8 °C
Index of Refraction: 1.528
Molar Refractivity: 51.2±0.3 cm3
#H bond acceptors: 4
#H bond donors: 1
#Freely Rotating Bonds: 4
#Rule of 5 Violations: 0
ACD/LogP: 2.07
ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 2.05
ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 21.16
ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 309.23
ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 2.00
ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 19.11
ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 279.19
Polar Surface Area: 56 Å2
Polarizability: 20.3±0.5 10-24cm3
Surface Tension: 42.1±3.0 dyne/cm
Molar Volume: 166.3±3.0 cm3

Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™

                        
 Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC):
    Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) =  2.31

 Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42):
    Boiling Pt (deg C):  300.82  (Adapted Stein & Brown method)
    Melting Pt (deg C):  82.62  (Mean or Weighted MP)
    VP(mm Hg,25 deg C):  0.000696  (Modified Grain method)
    MP  (exp database):  44 deg C
    BP  (exp database):  292 deg C
    Subcooled liquid VP: 0.00104 mm Hg (25 deg C, Mod-Grain method)

 Water Solubility Estimate from Log Kow (WSKOW v1.41):
    Water Solubility at 25 deg C (mg/L):  484.5
       log Kow used: 2.31 (estimated)
       no-melting pt equation used

 Water Sol Estimate from Fragments:
    Wat Sol (v1.01 est) =  748.99 mg/L

 ECOSAR Class Program (ECOSAR v0.99h):
    Class(es) found:
       Esters
       Phenols

 Henrys Law Constant (25 deg C) [HENRYWIN v3.10]:
   Bond Method :   2.84E-010  atm-m3/mole
   Group Method:   2.45E-009  atm-m3/mole
 Henrys LC [VP/WSol estimate using EPI values]:  3.709E-007 atm-m3/mole

 Log Octanol-Air Partition Coefficient (25 deg C) [KOAWIN v1.10]:
  Log Kow used:  2.31  (KowWin est)
  Log Kaw used:  -7.935  (HenryWin est)
      Log Koa (KOAWIN v1.10 estimate):  10.245
      Log Koa (experimental database):  None

 Probability of Rapid Biodegradation (BIOWIN v4.10):
   Biowin1 (Linear Model)         :   1.0760
   Biowin2 (Non-Linear Model)     :   0.9994
 Expert Survey Biodegradation Results:
   Biowin3 (Ultimate Survey Model):   2.9041  (weeks       )
   Biowin4 (Primary Survey Model) :   3.9104  (days        )
 MITI Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin5 (MITI Linear Model)    :   0.8065
   Biowin6 (MITI Non-Linear Model):   0.8752
 Anaerobic Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin7 (Anaerobic Linear Model):  0.8472
 Ready Biodegradability Prediction:   YES

Hydrocarbon Biodegradation (BioHCwin v1.01):
    Structure incompatible with current estimation method!

 Sorption to aerosols (25 Dec C)[AEROWIN v1.00]:
  Vapor pressure (liquid/subcooled):  0.139 Pa (0.00104 mm Hg)
  Log Koa (Koawin est  ): 10.245
   Kp (particle/gas partition coef. (m3/ug)):
       Mackay model           :  2.16E-005 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  0.00432 
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi):
       Junge-Pankow model     :  0.000781 
       Mackay model           :  0.00173 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  0.257 

 Atmospheric Oxidation (25 deg C) [AopWin v1.92]:
   Hydroxyl Radicals Reaction:
      OVERALL OH Rate Constant =  11.9505 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec
      Half-Life =     0.895 Days (12-hr day; 1.5E6 OH/cm3)
      Half-Life =    10.740 Hrs
   Ozone Reaction:
      No Ozone Reaction Estimation
   Reaction With Nitrate Radicals May Be Important!
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi): 0.00125 (Junge,Mackay)
    Note: the sorbed fraction may be resistant to atmospheric oxidation

 Soil Adsorption Coefficient (PCKOCWIN v1.66):
      Koc    :  168.3
      Log Koc:  2.226 

 Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]:
  Total Kb for pH > 8 at 25 deg C :  1.074E-002  L/mol-sec
  Kb Half-Life at pH 8:       2.045  years  
  Kb Half-Life at pH 7:      20.450  years  

 Bioaccumulation Estimates from Log Kow (BCFWIN v2.17):
   Log BCF from regression-based method = 1.081 (BCF = 12.04)
       log Kow used: 2.31 (estimated)

 Volatilization from Water:
    Henry LC:  2.45E-009 atm-m3/mole  (estimated by Group SAR Method)
    Half-Life from Model River: 3.347E+005  hours   (1.395E+004 days)
    Half-Life from Model Lake : 3.652E+006  hours   (1.522E+005 days)

 Removal In Wastewater Treatment:
    Total removal:               2.66  percent
    Total biodegradation:        0.10  percent
    Total sludge adsorption:     2.56  percent
    Total to Air:                0.00  percent
      (using 10000 hr Bio P,A,S)

 Level III Fugacity Model:
           Mass Amount    Half-Life    Emissions
            (percent)        (hr)       (kg/hr)
   Air       0.044           21.5         1000       
   Water     20.1            360          1000       
   Soil      79.7            720          1000       
   Sediment  0.105           3.24e+003    0          
     Persistence Time: 727 hr




                    

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