ChemSpider 2D Image | Methyl 3-phenylacrylate | C10H10O2

Methyl 3-phenylacrylate

  • Molecular FormulaC10H10O2
  • Average mass162.185 Da
  • Monoisotopic mass162.068085 Da
  • ChemSpider ID7361

More details:






Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl-, methyl ester [ACD/Index Name]
3-Phénylacrylate de méthyle [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Methyl 3-phenylacrylate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Methyl-3-phenylacrylat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
103-26-4 [RN]
203-093-8 [EINECS]
3-Phenyl-2-propenoic acid methyl ester
cinnamic acid methyl ester
CINNAMIC ACID, METHYL ESTER
Methyl cinnamate [Wiki]
More...

Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

ZINC00896129 [DBID]
  • Experimental Physico-chemical Properties
  • Miscellaneous
    • Safety:

      CAUTION: May irritate eyes, skin, and respiratory tract Alfa Aesar A15975
  • Gas Chromatography
    • Retention Index (Kovats):

      1365 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 15 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: BP-1; Carrier gas: N2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Raina, V.K.; Srivastava, S.K.; Syamasunder, K.V., The essential oil of 'greater galangal' [Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd.] from the lower Himalayan region of India, Flavour Fragr. J., 17, 2002, 358-360.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1370 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 15 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 240 C; End time: 10 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-1; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Raharivelomanana, P.; Cambon, A.; Azzaro, M.; Bianchini, J.-P.; Claude-Lafontaine, A.; George, G., Volatile Constituents of Neocallitropsis pancheri (Carriere) de Laubenfels Heartwood Extracts (Cupressaceae), J. Essent. Oil Res., 5, 1993, 587-595.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1370.5 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 7 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: El-Massry, K.F.; El-Ghorab, A.H.; Farouk, A., Antioxidant activity and volatile components of Egyptian Artemisia judaica L., Food Chem., 79, 2002, 331-336.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1394 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Juliani, H.R.; Simon, J.E., Antioxidant acitivity of basil, in Trends in new crops and new uses, Janick,J.; Whipkey,A., ed(s), ASHA Press, Alexandria, Va, 2002, 575-579.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2050 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.64 mm; Column length: 150 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 1 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 170 C; Start time: 30 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Buttery, R.G.; Kamm, J.A.; Ling, L.C., Volatile components of alfalfa flowers and pods, J. Agric. Food Chem., 30, 1982, 739-742.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Normal Alkane):

      1347 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(2min) => 2C/min =>200C =>15C/min =>250C (30min); CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.33 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Barra, A.; Baldovini, N.; Loiseau, A.-M.; Albino, L.; Lesecq, C.; Cuvelier, L.L., Chemical analysis of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous distillation/extraction (SDE), Food Chem., 101, 2007, 1279-1284.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1342 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 25 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Park, B.-S.; Lee, K.-G.; Takeoka, G.R., Comparison of three sample preparation methods on the recovery of volatiles from taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC), Flavour Fragr. J., 19, 2004, 287-292., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 6 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: BP-1; Carrier gas: Helium; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Kiran, S.R.; Bhavani, K.; Devi, P.S.; Rao, B.R.R.; Reddy, K.J., Composition and alrvicidal activity of leaves and stem essential oils of Chloroxylon swietenia DC against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, Biores. Technol., 97, 2006, 2481-2484.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1365 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-1; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Tohar, N.; Mohd, M.A.; Jantan, I.; Awang, K., A comparative study of the essential oils of the genus Plumeria Linn. from Malaysia, Flavour Fragr. J., 21, 2006, 859-863.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1343 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.31 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 30 C; End T: 210 C; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: Ultra-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.17 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Iwaoka, W.T.; Zhang, X.; Hamilton, R.A.; Chia, C.L.; Tang, C.S., Identifying volatiles in soursop and comparing their changing profiles during ripening, HortScience, 28(8), 1993, 817-819., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 25 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Park, B.-S.; Lee, K.-G.; Takeoka, G.R., Comparison of three sample preparation methods on the recovery of volatiles from taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC), Flavour Fragr. J., 19, 2004, 287-292.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1344 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DBP-5; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.22 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Heravi, M.J.; Sereshti, H., Determination of Essential Oil Components of Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss. using Simultaneous Hydrodistillation-Static Headspace Liquid Phase Microextraction - Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 1160, 2007, 81-89., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DBP-5; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.22 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Sereshti, H.; Samadi, S., Comparison of hydrodistillation-headspace liquid phase microextraction techniques with hydrodistillation in determination of essential oils in Artemisia Haussknechtii Boiss, JSUT, 33(2), 2007, 7-17., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 25 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Park, B.-S.; Lee, K.-G.; Takeoka, G.R., Comparison of three sample preparation methods on the recovery of volatiles from taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC), Flavour Fragr. J., 19, 2004, 287-292.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1348 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 25 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Park, B.-S.; Lee, K.-G.; Takeoka, G.R., Comparison of three sample preparation methods on the recovery of volatiles from taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC), Flavour Fragr. J., 19, 2004, 287-292., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 10 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-1; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Binder, R.G.; Benson, M.E.; Flath, R.A., Volatile Components of Safflower, J. Agric. Food Chem., 38(5), 1990, 1245-1248.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1352 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: SE-30; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1346 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 280 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Sefidkon, F.; Jalili, A.; Mirhaji, T., Essential oil composition of three Artemisia spp. from Iran, Flavour Fragr. J., 17, 2002, 150-152.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1336 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 30 0C (4 min) ^ 6 K/min -> 200 0C ^ 15 K/min -> 250 0C (20 min); CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-1; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Rowland, C.Y.; Blackman, A.J.; D'Arcy, B.R.; Rintoul, G.B., Comparison of organic extractives found in leatherwood (Eucryphia lucida) honey and leatherwood flowers and leaves, J. Agric. Food Chem., 43, 1995, 753-763.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1339 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.26 mm; Column length: 54 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 230 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: OV-101; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Zenkevich, I.G.; Kulikova, S.N., GC-MS Analysis of Products of Reactions of Unsaturated Compounds with Dimethyl Disulfide for Determination of Position of Double Bonds C=C, Vestnik St. Petersburg University. Ser. phys-khim., , 1993, 59-69, In original 59-69.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1402 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 1 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: Nitrogen; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Bousaada, O.; Ammar, S.; Saidana, D.; Chriaa, J.; Chraif, I.; Daami, M.; Helal, A.N.; Mighri, Z., Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile components from capitula and aerial parts of Rhaponticum acaule DC growing wild in Tunisia, Microbiol. Res., 163, 2008, 87-95.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1377 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40 0C (2 min) ^ 5 0C/min -> 80 0C ^ 7 oC/min -> 160 0C ^ 9 0C/min -> 200 0C ^ 20 0C/min -> 280 0C (10 min); CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Zhao, Y.; Li, J.; Xu, Y.; Duan, H.; Fan, W.; Zhao, G., EXtraction, preparation and identification of volatile compounds in Changyu XO brandy, Chinese J. Chromatogr., 26(2), 2008, 212-222.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1389 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Zhao, Y.; Li, J.; Xu, Y.; Duan, H.; Fan, W.; Zhao, G., EXtraction, preparation and identification of volatile compounds in Changyu XO brandy, Chinese J. Chromatogr., 26(2), 2008, 212-222.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1386 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 250 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Bertrand, C.; Comte, G.; Piola, F., Solid-phase microextraction of volatile compounds from flowers of two Brunfelsia species, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 34, 2006, 371-375.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1379 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C =>1C/min =>100C=> 5C/min =>250C (10min); CAS no: 103264; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.15 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Tognolini, M.; Barocelli, E.; Ballabeni, V.; Bruni, R.; Bianchi, A.; Chiavarini, M.; Impicciatore, M., Comparative screening of plant essential oils: Phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity, Life Sciences, 78, 2006, 1419-1432., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 250 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Fadel, H.H.M.; Mageed, M.A.A.; Samad, A.K.M.E.A.; Lotfy, S.N., Cocoa substitute: Evaluation of sensory qualities and flavour stability, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 223, 2006, 125-131.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1388 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 250 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-5MS; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Robinson, C.J., A new essential oil - Agonis fragrans, A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, RIRDC Publication No. 06/090, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Barton, ACT, 2006, 12.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1399 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 260 C; End time: 1 min; Start time: 4.6 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: ZB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Jurgens, A.; Dotterl, S., Chemical composition of anther volatiles in Ranunculaceae: genera-specific profiles in Aemone, Aquilegia, Caltha, Pulsatilla, Ranunculus, and Trollius species, American Journal of Botany, 91(12), 2004, 1969-1980.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2051 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 25 0C (0.5 min) ^ 50 K/min -> 50 0C ^ 3.5 K/min -> 150 0C ^ 7.5 K/min -> 240 0C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Miranda, E.J.F.; Nogueira, R.I.; Pontes, S.M.; Rezende, C.M., Odour-active compounds of banana passa identified by aroma extract dilution analysis, Flavour Fragr. J., 16, 2001, 281-285., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 1 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-Innowax; Carrier gas: Nitrogen; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Bousaada, O.; Ammar, S.; Saidana, D.; Chriaa, J.; Chraif, I.; Daami, M.; Helal, A.N.; Mighri, Z., Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile components from capitula and aerial parts of Rhaponticum acaule DC growing wild in Tunisia, Microbiol. Res., 163, 2008, 87-95., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2056 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C(2min)=>40C/min=>60C(2min)=>6C/min=>180C=>10C/min=230C(10min); CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Buettner, A.; Mestres, M., Investigation of the retronasal perception of strawberry aroma aftersmell depending on matrix composition, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 2005, 1661-1669.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2073 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 180 C; End time: 40 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lee, S.-J.; Umano, K.; Shibamoto, T.; Lee, K.-G., Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties, Food Chem., 91, 2005, 131-137.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2071 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Jiang, L.; Kubota, K., Differences in the volatile components and their odor characteristics of green and ripe fruits and dried pericarp of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 2004, 4197-4203.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2078.7 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 260 C; End time: 7 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: EC-WAX; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Raguso, R.A.; Levin, R.A.; Foose, S.E.; Holmberg, M.W.; McDade, L.A., Fragrance chemistry, nocturnal rhythms and pollination "syndromes" in Nicotiana, Phytochemistry, 63, 2003, 265-284.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2062 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 240 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ducruet, V.; Fournier, N.; Saillard, P.; Feigenbaum, A.; Guichard, E., Influence of packaging on the aroma stability of strawberry syrup during shelf life, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 2290-2297.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2024 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 220 C; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Weckerle, B.; Bastl-Borrmann, R.; Richling, E.; Hor, K.; Ruff, C.; Schreier, P., Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) flavour constituents - chiral evaluation (MDGC-MS) and isotope ratio (HRGC-IRMS) analysis, Flavour Fragr. J., 16, 2001, 360-363.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2047 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 30 C; End T: 180 C; End time: 25 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Takeoka, G.R.; Buttery, R.G.; Teranishi, R.; Flath, R.A.; Guntert, M., Identification of additional pineapple volatiles, J. Agric. Food Chem., 39(10), 1991, 1848-1851.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2068 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 10 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Binder, R.G.; Benson, M.E.; Flath, R.A., Volatile Components of Safflower, J. Agric. Food Chem., 38(5), 1990, 1245-1248.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2050 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.64 mm; Column length: 150 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 1 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 170 C; End time: 30 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Buttery, R.G.; Kamm, J.A.; Ling, L.C., Volatile components of red clover leaves, flowers, and seed pods: possible insect attractants, J. Agric. Food Chem., 32, 1984, 254-256., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Peppard, T.L.; Ramus, S.A., Use of Kovats' gas chromatographic retention indices in beer flavor studies, Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. Proc., 46(2), 1988, 26-30.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Linear):

      1380 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 180 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 10 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-1; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: bin Jantan, I.; Yalvema, M.F.; Ahmad, N.W.; Jamal, J.A., Insecticidal activities of the leaf oils of eight Cinnamomum species against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, Pharm. Biol., 43(6), 2005, 526-532.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1378 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 75 C; End T: 230 C; Start time: 10 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: N2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: bin Jantan, I.; Yassin, M.S.M.; Chin, C.B.; Chen, L.L.; Sim. N.L., Antifungal activity of the essential oils of nine Zingiberaceae species, Pharm. Biol., 41(5), 2003, 392-397., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 180 C; End time: 1 min; Start time: 10 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: N2; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: bin Jantan, I.; Basni, I.; Ahmad, A.S.; Ali, N.A.M.; Ahmad, A.R.; Ibrahim, H., Constituents of the rhizome oils of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schlecht from Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand, Flavour Fragr. J., 16, 2001, 110-112.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1343 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column length: 12 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 240 C; End time: 75 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: BP-1; Carrier gas: H2; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Tan, S.T.; Wilkins, A.L.; Holland, P.T.; McGhie, T.K., Extractives from New Zealand unifloral honeys. 2. Degraded carotenoids and other substances from heather honey, J. Agric. Food Chem., 37, 1989, 1217-1221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1350 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 10 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: OV-1; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Tan, S.-T.; Holland, P.T.; Wilkins, A.L.; Molan, P.C., Extractives from New Zealand honeys. 1. White clovers, manuka, and kanuka unifloral honeys, J. Agric. Food Chem., 36, 1988, 453-460.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1363 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.762 mm; Column length: 600 ft; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 1 K/min; Start T: 0 C; End T: 230 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: OV-1; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Schreyen, L.; Dirinck, P.; van Wassenhove, F.; Schamp, N., Analysis of leek volatiles by headspace condensation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 24(6), 1976, 1147-1152., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Packed; Start T: 75 C; End T: 228 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: SE-30; Substrate: Celite; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: van den Dool, H.; Kratz, P. Dec., A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partition chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 11, 1963, 463-471.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1397 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-5MS; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Cho, I.H.; Namgung, H.-J.; Choi, H.-K.; Kim, Y.-S., Volatiles and key odorants in the pileus and stipe of pine-mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.), Food Chem., 106, 2008, 71-76.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1379 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C =>1C/min =>100C=> 5C/min =>250C(10min); CAS no: 103264; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.15 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Sacchetti, G.; Guerrini, A.; Noriega, P.; Bianchi, A.; Bruni, R., Essential oil of wild Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. (Lauraceae) leaves from Amazonian Ecuador, Flavour Fragr. J., 21, 2006, 674-676., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C=>1C/min =>100C=> 5C/min =>250C (10min); CAS no: 103264; Active phase: 5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.15 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Sacchetti, G.; Maietti, S.; Muzzoli, M.; Scaglianti, M.; Manfredini, S.; Radice, M.; Bruni, R., Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods, Food Chem., 91, 2005, 621-632.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1373 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 270 C; End time: 20 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Alves, R.J.V.; Pinto, A.C.; da Costa, A.V.M.; Rezende, C.M., Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. (Rhamnaceae) and the chemical composition of its floral fecal odor, J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 16(3B), 2005, 654-656.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1389 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 200 C; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Shalit, M.; Katzir, N.; Tadmor, Y.; Larkov, O.; Burger, Y.; Shalekhet, F.; Lastochkin, E.; Ravid, U.; Amar, O.; Edelstein, M.; Karchi, Z.; Lewinsohn, E., Acetyl-CoA: alcohol acetyltransferase activity and aroma formation in ripening melon fruits, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 794-799.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2103 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Cho, I.H.; Namgung, H.-J.; Choi, H.-K.; Kim, Y.-S., Volatiles and key odorants in the pileus and stipe of pine-mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.), Food Chem., 106, 2008, 71-76., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Cho, I.H.; Choi, H.-K.; Kim, Y.-S., Difference in the volatile composition of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2006, 4820-4825.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2070 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Pozo-Bayon M.A.; Ruiz-Rodriguez A.; Pernin K.; Cayot N., Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 1418-1426.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2078 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C(5min) =>10C/min =>80C =>2C/min =>240C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: CP-Wax 52CB; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Romeo, V.; Ziino, M.; Giuffrrida, D.; Condurso, C.; Verzera, A., Flavour profile of capers (Capparis spinosa L.) from the Eolian Archipelago by HS-SPME/GC?MS, Food Chem., 101, 2007, 1272-1278.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2095 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Cho, I.H.; Choi, H.-K.; Kim, Y.-S., Difference in the volatile composition of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2006, 4820-4825.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2056 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Osorio, C.; Alarcon, M.; Moreno, C.; Bonilla, A.; Barrios, J.; Garzon, C.; Duque, C., Characterization of Odor-Active Volatiles in Champa ( Campomanesia lineatifolia R. & P.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2006, 509-516.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2020 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: OV-351; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.2 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Bonvehi, J.S., Investigation of aromatic compounds in roasted cocoa powder, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 221, 2005, 19-29., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: OV-351; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.2 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Bonvehi, J.S.; Coll, F.V., Flavour index and aroma profiles of fresh and processed honeys, J. Sci. Food Agric., 83, 2003, 275-282.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2080 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1.0 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Brophy, J.; Goldsack, R.J.; Bean, A.R.; Forster, P.I.; Lepschi, B.J., Leaf essential oils of the genus Leptospermum (Myrtaceae) in eastern Australia. Part 6. Leptospermum polygalifolium and allies, Flavour Fragr. J., 15, 2000, 271-277.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2040 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.31 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 200 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Suarez, M.; Duque, C., Volatile constituents of lulo (Salanum vestissimum D.) fruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 39(8), 1991, 1498-1500.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2050 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.31 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 200 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Suarez, M.; Duque, C., Volatile constituents of lulo (Salanum vestissimum D.) fruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 39(8), 1991, 1498-1500.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2065 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 4.6 K/min; Start T: 75 C; End T: 228 C; CAS no: 103264; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Substrate: Celite 545; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: van den Dool, H.; Kratz, P. Dec., A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partition chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 11, 1963, 463-471.) NIST Spectra nist ri

Predicted data is generated using the ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module

Density: 1.1±0.1 g/cm3
Boiling Point: 261.9±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Vapour Pressure: 0.0±0.5 mmHg at 25°C
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 50.0±3.0 kJ/mol
Flash Point: 141.3±9.9 °C
Index of Refraction: 1.559
Molar Refractivity: 48.5±0.3 cm3
#H bond acceptors: 2
#H bond donors: 0
#Freely Rotating Bonds: 3
#Rule of 5 Violations: 0
ACD/LogP: 2.18
ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 2.39
ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 38.60
ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 475.70
ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 2.39
ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 38.60
ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 475.70
Polar Surface Area: 26 Å2
Polarizability: 19.2±0.5 10-24cm3
Surface Tension: 38.5±3.0 dyne/cm
Molar Volume: 150.4±3.0 cm3

Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™

                        
 Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC):
    Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) =  2.36
    Log Kow (Exper. database match) =  2.62
       Exper. Ref:  Hansch,C et al. (1995)

 Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42):
    Boiling Pt (deg C):  239.90  (Adapted Stein & Brown method)
    Melting Pt (deg C):  9.69  (Mean or Weighted MP)
    VP(mm Hg,25 deg C):  0.0124  (Modified Grain method)
    MP  (exp database):  36 deg C
    BP  (exp database):  260.4 deg C
    VP  (exp database):  3.45E-02 mm Hg at 25 deg C
    Subcooled liquid VP: 0.0443 mm Hg (25 deg C, exp database VP )

 Water Solubility Estimate from Log Kow (WSKOW v1.41):
    Water Solubility at 25 deg C (mg/L):  387.1
       log Kow used: 2.62 (expkow database)
       no-melting pt equation used

 Water Sol Estimate from Fragments:
    Wat Sol (v1.01 est) =  582.43 mg/L

 ECOSAR Class Program (ECOSAR v0.99h):
    Class(es) found:
       Acrylates

 Henrys Law Constant (25 deg C) [HENRYWIN v3.10]:
   Bond Method :   4.14E-006  atm-m3/mole
   Group Method:   8.10E-007  atm-m3/mole
 Henrys LC [VP/WSol estimate using EPI values]:  6.836E-006 atm-m3/mole

 Log Octanol-Air Partition Coefficient (25 deg C) [KOAWIN v1.10]:
  Log Kow used:  2.62  (exp database)
  Log Kaw used:  -3.771  (HenryWin est)
      Log Koa (KOAWIN v1.10 estimate):  6.391
      Log Koa (experimental database):  None

 Probability of Rapid Biodegradation (BIOWIN v4.10):
   Biowin1 (Linear Model)         :   0.9726
   Biowin2 (Non-Linear Model)     :   0.9986
 Expert Survey Biodegradation Results:
   Biowin3 (Ultimate Survey Model):   3.0030  (weeks       )
   Biowin4 (Primary Survey Model) :   3.8476  (days        )
 MITI Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin5 (MITI Linear Model)    :   0.6272
   Biowin6 (MITI Non-Linear Model):   0.7245
 Anaerobic Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin7 (Anaerobic Linear Model):  0.5223
 Ready Biodegradability Prediction:   YES

Hydrocarbon Biodegradation (BioHCwin v1.01):
    Structure incompatible with current estimation method!

 Sorption to aerosols (25 Dec C)[AEROWIN v1.00]:
  Vapor pressure (liquid/subcooled):  5.91 Pa (0.0443 mm Hg)
  Log Koa (Koawin est  ): 6.391
   Kp (particle/gas partition coef. (m3/ug)):
       Mackay model           :  5.08E-007 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  6.04E-007 
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi):
       Junge-Pankow model     :  1.83E-005 
       Mackay model           :  4.06E-005 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  4.83E-005 

 Atmospheric Oxidation (25 deg C) [AopWin v1.92]:
   Hydroxyl Radicals Reaction:
      OVERALL OH Rate Constant =  21.7908 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec [Cis-isomer]
      OVERALL OH Rate Constant =  24.4508 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec [Trans-isomer]
      Half-Life =    5.890 Hrs (12-hr day; 1.5E6 OH/cm3) [Cis-isomer]
      Half-Life =    5.249 Hrs (12-hr day; 1.5E6 OH/cm3) [Trans-isomer]
   Ozone Reaction:
      OVERALL Ozone Rate Constant =     1.050000 E-17 cm3/molecule-sec [Cis-]
      OVERALL Ozone Rate Constant =     2.100000 E-17 cm3/molecule-sec [Trans-]
      Half-Life =     1.091 Days (at 7E11 mol/cm3) [Cis-isomer]
      Half-Life =    13.097 Hrs (at 7E11 mol/cm3) [Trans-isomer]
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi): 2.95E-005 (Junge,Mackay)
    Note: the sorbed fraction may be resistant to atmospheric oxidation

 Soil Adsorption Coefficient (PCKOCWIN v1.66):
      Koc    :  258.4
      Log Koc:  2.412 

 Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]:
  Total Kb for pH > 8 at 25 deg C :  1.199E-002  L/mol-sec
  Kb Half-Life at pH 8:       1.831  years  
  Kb Half-Life at pH 7:      18.310  years  

 Bioaccumulation Estimates from Log Kow (BCFWIN v2.17):
   Log BCF from regression-based method = 1.317 (BCF = 20.77)
       log Kow used: 2.62 (expkow database)

 Volatilization from Water:
    Henry LC:  8.1E-007 atm-m3/mole  (estimated by Group SAR Method)
    Half-Life from Model River:      921.8  hours   (38.41 days)
    Half-Life from Model Lake : 1.016E+004  hours   (423.5 days)

 Removal In Wastewater Treatment:
    Total removal:               3.53  percent
    Total biodegradation:        0.11  percent
    Total sludge adsorption:     3.38  percent
    Total to Air:                0.05  percent
      (using 10000 hr Bio P,A,S)

 Level III Fugacity Model:
           Mass Amount    Half-Life    Emissions
            (percent)        (hr)       (kg/hr)
   Air       0.744           8.12         1000       
   Water     26.4            360          1000       
   Soil      72.7            720          1000       
   Sediment  0.224           3.24e+003    0          
     Persistence Time: 459 hr




                    

Click to predict properties on the Chemicalize site






Advertisement