ChemSpider 2D Image | Benzo[e]pyrene | C20H12

Benzo[e]pyrene

  • Molecular FormulaC20H12
  • Average mass252.309 Da
  • Monoisotopic mass252.093903 Da
  • ChemSpider ID8774

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Benzo[e]pyrene [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1,2-Benzopyrene
1,2-Benzpyrene
192-97-2 [RN]
4,5-Benzopyrene
4,5-BENZPYRENE
benz[e]pyrene
Benzo(e)pyrene [Wiki]
Benzo[e]pyren [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Benzo[e]pyrène [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
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Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

36962_RIEDEL [DBID]
442475_SUPELCO [DBID]
B10102_ALDRICH [DBID]
BCR050_FLUKA [DBID]
BRN 1911334 [DBID]
C14435 [DBID]
CCRIS 786 [DBID]
HSDB 4031 [DBID]
NCGC00091854-01 [DBID]
NSC 89273 [DBID]
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  • Experimental Physico-chemical Properties
  • Gas Chromatography
    • Retention Index (Kovats):

      2535 (estimated with error: 174) NIST Spectra mainlib_229623, replib_253137, replib_12229
      2753 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Column length: 17.5 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 240 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 43, 1988, 1082-1088.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2766 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Column length: 17.5 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 240 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 43, 1988, 1082-1088.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2799 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Column length: 17.5 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 260 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 43, 1988, 1082-1088.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2801 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Column length: 17.5 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 260 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 43, 1988, 1082-1088.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2806 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Column length: 17.5 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 260 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 43, 1988, 1082-1088.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2817 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Column length: 17.5 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 260 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 43, 1988, 1082-1088.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2816 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.50 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 270 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: OV-101; Carrier gas: N2; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Grimmer, G.; Bohnke, H., Bestimmung des Gesamtgehaltes aller polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe in Luftstaub und Kraftfahrzeugabgas mit der Capillar-Gas-Chromatographie, Z. Anal. Chem., 261, 1972, 310-314., Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column length: 3 m; Column type: Packed; Start T: 250 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: OV-101; Carrier gas: N2; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Rudenko, B.A.; Bulychova, Z.Yu.; Topunov, V.N.; Itsikson, L.B., Regularities in changes of retention indices for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons depending on their structure and polarity of stationary phase, Zh. Anal. Khim., 39(4), 1984, 700-706.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Lee):

      455.9 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: OV-101; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Tucminen, A.; Wickstrom, K.; Pyysalo, H., Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds by GLC-Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) Technique, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. & Chromatogr. Comm., , 1986, 469-471.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      449.8 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 100 C; End T: 275 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: Methyl Silicone; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.1 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column type: Packed; Start T: 270 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: Methyl Silicone; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.2 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column type: Packed; Start T: 200 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: Methyl Silicone; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.6 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column type: Packed; Start T: 260 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: Methyl Silicone; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      453.3 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column type: Packed; Start T: 300 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: Methyl Silicone; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.18 mm; Column length: 20 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 345 C; Start time: 1.5 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: PE-5; Phase thickness: 0.18 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Jamoussi, B.; Kanzari, F.; Hassine, B.B.; Abderrabba, A., Using Bezier curves for the calculation of retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the so-called Lee's scale in temperature-programmed gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 45, 2007, 22-27.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      451.3 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.5 mm; Column length: 100 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: OV-101; Carrier gas: N2; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Grimmer. G.; Bohnke, H.; Glaser, A., Polyscyclische aromatische Kohlen-wasserstoffe im Abgas von Kraftfahrzeugen, Erdol und Kohle., 30(9), 1977, 411-417.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      451.6 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column type: Packed; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-30; Substrate: Chromosorb W; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Wilmshurst, J.R., Gas-chromatographic analysis of polynuclear arenes, J. Chromatogr., 17, 1965, 50-59.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      439.1 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Fuentes, M.J.; Font, R.; Gomez-Rico, M.F.; Martin-Gullon, I., Pyrolysis and combustion of waste lubricant oil from diesel cars: Decomposition and pollutants, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 79, 2007, 215-226.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.93 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 60C(2min) =>6C/min =>258C=>2C/min =>300C(4min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: HP-5MS; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Wang, Z.; Li, K.; Lambert, P.; Yang, C., Identification, characterization and quantitation of pyrogenic polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in tire fire products, J. Chromatogr. A, 1139, 2007, 14-26., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: HP-5MS; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Wang, Z.; Li, K.; Lambert, P.; Brown, C.E.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.P., Identification and characterization of polycyclic aromatic compounds in tire fire products and differentiation of pyrogenic PAHs from petrogenic PAHs, in Proceedings of the 30th Arctic and Marine Oilspill (AMOP) Technical Seminar. Vol.1, 2007, 61-85.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.29 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: HP-5MS; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Wang, Z.; Li, K.; Lambert, P.; Brown, C.E.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.P., Identification and characterization of polycyclic aromatic compounds in tire fire products and differentiation of pyrogenic PAHs from petrogenic PAHs, in Proceedings of the 30th Arctic and Marine Oilspill (AMOP) Technical Seminar. Vol.1, 2007, 61-85., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.30 mm; Column length: 20 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 265 C; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Vassilaros, D.L.; Kong, R.C.; Later, D.W.; Lee, M.L., Linear retention index system for polycyclic aromatic compounds. Critical evaluation and additional indices, J. Chromatogr., 252, 1982, 1-20.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.7 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; Description: 70 0C (2 min) ^ 30 0C/min -> 150 0C ^ 5 0C/min -> 200 0C ^ 4 0C/min -> 310 0C (5 min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: 5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Skrbic, B.; Onjia, A., Prediction of Lee Retention Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Artificial Neural Networks, J. Chromatorg. A, 1108(2), 2006, 279-284., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: HP-5MS; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Wang, Z.; Li, K.; Lambert, P.; Brown, C.E.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.P., Identification and characterization of polycyclic aromatic compounds in tire fire products and differentiation of pyrogenic PAHs from petrogenic PAHs, in Proceedings of the 30th Arctic and Marine Oilspill (AMOP) Technical Seminar. Vol.1, 2007, 61-85., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Wise, S.A.; Benner, B.A.; Byrd, G.D.; Chesler, S.N.; Rebbert, R.E.; Schantz, M.M., Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coal tar standard reference material, Anal. Chem., 60, 1988, 887-894., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 300 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Marynowski, L.; Pieta, M.; Janeczek, J., Composition and source of polycyclic aromatic compounds in deposited dust from selected sites around the Upper Silesia, Poland, Geol. Q., 48(2), 2004, 169-180., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 280 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.125 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Aceves, M.; Grimalt, J.O., Gas chromatographic screening of organic compounds in urban aerosols. Selectivity effects in semi-polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 607, 1992, 261-270.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      450.73 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Tong, H.Y.; Centen, J.D.; Karasek, F.W.; Jellum, E.; Helland, P., Identification of Trace Organic Compounds in Dimethyl Sulphoxide Solution Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 324, 1985, 373-383., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-54; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Chen, J., GC and GC/MS methods for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in sediment of the grand canal of China, Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 54, 1996, 69-73., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.3 mm; Column length: 12 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 250 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.34 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Lee, M.L.; Vassilaros, D.L.; White, C.M.; Novotny, M., Retention Indices for Programmed-Temperature Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 51(6), 1979, 768-773., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Naikwadi, K.P.; Charbonneau, G.M.; Karasek, F.W.; Clement, R.E., Separation and Identification of Organic Compounds in Air Particulate Extracts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 398, 1987, 227-237., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 250 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: 5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Skrbic, B.; Onjia, A., Prediction of Lee Retention Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Artificial Neural Networks, J. Chromatorg. A, 1108(2), 2006, 279-284.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      451.8 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Lundstedt, S.; Haglund, P.; Oberg, L., Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bioslurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 22(7), 2003, 1413-1420., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 80 C; End T: 300 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: 5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Skrbic, B.; Onjia, A., Prediction of Lee Retention Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Artificial Neural Networks, J. Chromatorg. A, 1108(2), 2006, 279-284.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      444.4 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5MS; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Aracil, I.; Font, R.; Conesa, J.A., Semivolatile and volatile compounds from the pyrolysis and combustion of polyvinyl chloride, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 74, 2005, 465-478.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      453.12 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 310 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 1.5 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Pedersen, D.U.; Durant, J.L.; Taghizadeh, K.; Hemond, H.F.; Lafleur, A.L.; Cass, G.R., Human cell mutagenes in respirable airborne particles from the Northeastern United States. 2. Quantification of mutagenes and other organic compounds., Environ. Sci. Technol., 39(24), 2005, 9547-9560.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      449.38 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 60C(2min) =>15C/min =>180C =>5C/min =>280C (10min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: LM-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Re-Poppi, N.; Santiago-Silva, M., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other selected organic compounds in ambient air of Campo Grande City, Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 39, 2005, 2839-2850.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      449.47 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 60C(2min) =>15C/min =>180C =>5C/min =>280C (10min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: LM-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Re-Poppi, N.; Santiago-Silva, M., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other selected organic compounds in ambient air of Campo Grande City, Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 39, 2005, 2839-2850.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.22 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 310 C; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5MS; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Chen, P.H.; Keeran, W.S.; Van Ausdale, W.A.; Schindler, D.R.; Roberts, D.W., Application of Lee retention indices to the confirmation of tentatively identified compounds from GC/MS analysis of environmental samples, Technical paper, Analytical Services Division, Environmental Science&Engineering, Inc, PO Box 1703, Gainesville, FL 32602, 2002, 11.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      450.1 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 60C(2min)=>15C/min=>180C=>5C/min=>280C(5min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: LM-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Re-Poppi, N.; Santiago-Silva, M.R., Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methoxylated phenols in wood smoke emitted during production of charcoal, Chromatographia, 55(7/8), 2002, 475-481.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      450.12 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 60C(2min)=>15C/min=>180C=>5C/min=>280C(5min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: LM-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Re-Poppi, N.; Santiago-Silva, M.R., Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methoxylated phenols in wood smoke emitted during production of charcoal, Chromatographia, 55(7/8), 2002, 475-481.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      451.28 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: HP-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Piao, M.; Chu, S.; Zheng, M.; Xu, X., Characterization of the combustion products of polyethylene, Chemosphere, 39(9), 1999, 1497-1512.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.86 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 90C (1min) => 10C/min => 120C => 4C/min => 310C (20min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Zamperlini, G.C.M.; Silva, M.R.S.; Vilegas, W., Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar cane soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Chromatographia, 46(11/12), 1997, 655-663., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Column length: 20 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 300 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-54; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.20 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Guillen, M.D.; Blanco, J.; Bermejo, J.; Blanco, C.G., Temperature programmed retention indices of some PAHs on Capillary columns coated with OV-1701 and SE-54, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 12, 1989, 552-554.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.94 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 90C (1min) => 10C/min => 120C => 4C/min => 310C (20min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Zamperlini, G.C.M.; Silva, M.R.S.; Vilegas, W., Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar cane soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Chromatographia, 46(11/12), 1997, 655-663.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.36 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 300 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-54; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Chen, J., GC and GC/MS methods for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in sediment of the grand canal of China, Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 54, 1996, 69-73.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      451.53 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.3 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 270 C; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Williams, P.T.; Horne, P.A., Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in pyrolytic oil derived from biomass, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 31, 1995, 15-37.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      454.1 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 300 C; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SPB-5; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Knobloch, T.; Engewald, W., Identification of some polar polycyclic compounds in emissions from brown-coal-fired residential stoves, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 16, 1993, 239-242.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      449.4 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 280 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: CP Sil 8 CB; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 00.13 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Aceves, M.; Grimalt, J.O., Gas chromatographic screening of organic compounds in urban aerosols. Selectivity effects in semi-polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 607, 1992, 261-270.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      451.1 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 280 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.2 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Aceves, M.; Grimalt, J.O., Gas chromatographic screening of organic compounds in urban aerosols. Selectivity effects in semi-polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 607, 1992, 261-270.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.4 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 280 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.11 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Aceves, M.; Grimalt, J.O., Gas chromatographic screening of organic compounds in urban aerosols. Selectivity effects in semi-polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 607, 1992, 261-270.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      453.1 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 280 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-54; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.125 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Aceves, M.; Grimalt, J.O., Gas chromatographic screening of organic compounds in urban aerosols. Selectivity effects in semi-polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 607, 1992, 261-270.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.14 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 140C (2min) =>(rapidly)=>200C(2min)=>5C/min =>370C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: CP Sil 8 CB; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Bemgard, A.; Colmsjo, A.; Lundmark, B.-O., Gas chromatographic analysis of high-molecular-weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Molecular weight 328, J. Chromatogr., 595, 1992, 247-258.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.71 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Column length: 15 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 140C (2min) =>(rapidly)=>200C(2min)=>5C/min =>370C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: XTI-5; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Bemgard, A.; Colmsjo, A.; Lundmark, B.-O., Gas chromatographic analysis of high-molecular-weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Molecular weight 328, J. Chromatogr., 595, 1992, 247-258.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      450.75 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-54; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Guillen, M.D.; Iglesias, M.J.; Dominguez, A.; Blanco, C.G., Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon retention indices on SE-54 stationary phase of the volatile components of a coal tar pitch. Relationships between chromatographic retention and thermal reactivity, J. Chromatogr., 591, 1992, 287-295.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.65 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; Description: 70C(2min) => 30C/min =>150C =>5C/min =>200C =>4C/min =>310C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Takada, H.; Onda, T.; Ogura, N., Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban street dusts and their source materials by capillary gas chromatography, Environ. Sci. Technol., 24(8), 1990, 1179-1186.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      451.24 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 80 C; End T: 290 C; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Sye, W.-F.; Lin, C.-L.; Yen, D.-P.; Tsai, C.-S., Polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons formation from luel and additives combustion, J. Chinese Chem. Soc., 35(1), 1988, 1-11.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      449.76 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Naikwadi, K.P.; Charbonneau, G.M.; Karasek, F.W.; Clement, R.E., Separation and Identification of Organic Compounds in Air Particulate Extracts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 398, 1987, 227-237.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.85 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 90 C; End T: 325 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Tong, H.Y.; Centen, J.D.; Karasek, F.W.; Jellum, E.; Helland, P., Identification of Trace Organic Compounds in Dimethyl Sulphoxide Solution Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 324, 1985, 373-383.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      441.53 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      449.62 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      450.43 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      450.82 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      451.25 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      452.23 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Normal Alkane):

      2816 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 300 C; End time: 35 min; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: Ultra-1; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 0.33 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P.; Hutfliess, M.; Hedden, K., Retention index system, adsorption characteristics, and sructure correlations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fuels, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 19, 1996, 345-352.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2796.1 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.5 mm; Column length: 100 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: OV-101; Carrier gas: N2; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Grimmer. G.; Bohnke, H.; Glaser, A., Polyscyclische aromatische Kohlen-wasserstoffe im Abgas von Kraftfahrzeugen, Erdol und Kohle., 30(9), 1977, 411-417.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2815.7 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column type: Packed; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-30; Substrate: Chromosorb W; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Wilmshurst, J.R., Gas-chromatographic analysis of polynuclear arenes, J. Chromatogr., 17, 1965, 50-59.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2771.2 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 90C (1min) => 10C/min => 120C => 4C/min => 310C (20min); CAS no: 192972; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Zamperlini, G.C.M.; Silva, M.R.S.; Vilegas, W., Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar cane soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Chromatographia, 46(11/12), 1997, 655-663.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2817.5 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Column length: 17.5 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 240 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 43, 1988, 1082-1088.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Linear):

      2794.4 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Column length: 17.5 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 100 C; End T: 280 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 43, 1988, 1082-1088.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2751.03 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Column length: 12 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 250 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.17 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Lee, M.L.; Vassilaros, D.L.; White, C.M.; Novotny, M., Retention Indices for Programmed-Temperature Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 51(6), 1979, 768-773.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2770.65 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.3 mm; Column length: 12 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 250 C; CAS no: 192972; Active phase: SE-52; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.34 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Lee, M.L.; Vassilaros, D.L.; White, C.M.; Novotny, M., Retention Indices for Programmed-Temperature Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 51(6), 1979, 768-773.) NIST Spectra nist ri

Predicted data is generated using the ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module

Density: 1.3±0.1 g/cm3
Boiling Point: 467.5±12.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Vapour Pressure: 0.0±0.6 mmHg at 25°C
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 70.2±0.8 kJ/mol
Flash Point: 228.6±13.7 °C
Index of Refraction: 1.887
Molar Refractivity: 90.3±0.3 cm3
#H bond acceptors: 0
#H bond donors: 0
#Freely Rotating Bonds: 0
#Rule of 5 Violations: 1
ACD/LogP: 6.40
ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 6.35
ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 39604.89
ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 68022.34
ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 6.35
ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 39604.89
ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 68022.34
Polar Surface Area: 0 Å2
Polarizability: 35.8±0.5 10-24cm3
Surface Tension: 63.5±3.0 dyne/cm
Molar Volume: 196.1±3.0 cm3

Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™

                        
 Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC):
    Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) =  6.11
    Log Kow (Exper. database match) =  6.44
       Exper. Ref:  De Voogt,P et al. (1990)

 Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42):
    Boiling Pt (deg C):  442.75  (Adapted Stein & Brown method)
    Melting Pt (deg C):  169.41  (Mean or Weighted MP)
    VP(mm Hg,25 deg C):  1.94E-008  (Modified Grain method)
    MP  (exp database):  177.5 deg C
    BP  (exp database):  310-312 @ 10 mm Hg deg C
    VP  (exp database):  5.70E-09 mm Hg at 25 deg C
    Subcooled liquid VP: 1.84E-007 mm Hg (25 deg C, exp database VP )

 Water Solubility Estimate from Log Kow (WSKOW v1.41):
    Water Solubility at 25 deg C (mg/L):  0.00564
       log Kow used: 6.44 (expkow database)
       no-melting pt equation used
     Water Sol (Exper. database match) =  0.0063 mg/L (25 deg C)
        Exper. Ref:  PEARLMAN,RS ET AL. (1984)

 Water Sol Estimate from Fragments:
    Wat Sol (v1.01 est) =  0.0020006 mg/L
    Wat Sol (Exper. database match) =  0.01
       Exper. Ref:  PEARLMAN,RS ET AL. (1984)

 ECOSAR Class Program (ECOSAR v0.99h):
    Class(es) found:
       Neutral Organics

 Henrys Law Constant (25 deg C) [HENRYWIN v3.10]:
   Bond Method :   8.10E-007  atm-m3/mole
   Group Method:   2.03E-007  atm-m3/mole
   Exper Database: 3.00E-07  atm-m3/mole
 Henrys LC [VP/WSol estimate using EPI values]:  1.142E-006 atm-m3/mole

 Log Octanol-Air Partition Coefficient (25 deg C) [KOAWIN v1.10]:
  Log Kow used:  6.44  (exp database)
  Log Kaw used:  -4.911  (exp database)
      Log Koa (KOAWIN v1.10 estimate):  11.351
      Log Koa (experimental database):  None

 Probability of Rapid Biodegradation (BIOWIN v4.10):
   Biowin1 (Linear Model)         :  -0.0299
   Biowin2 (Non-Linear Model)     :   0.0000
 Expert Survey Biodegradation Results:
   Biowin3 (Ultimate Survey Model):   1.8422  (months      )
   Biowin4 (Primary Survey Model) :   2.7815  (weeks       )
 MITI Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin5 (MITI Linear Model)    :   0.0601
   Biowin6 (MITI Non-Linear Model):   0.0350
 Anaerobic Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin7 (Anaerobic Linear Model): -0.3091
 Ready Biodegradability Prediction:   NO

 Hydrocarbon Biodegradation (BioHCwin v1.01):
     LOG BioHC Half-Life (days) :   2.6249
     BioHC Half-Life (days)     : 421.6084

 Sorption to aerosols (25 Dec C)[AEROWIN v1.00]:
  Vapor pressure (liquid/subcooled):  2.45E-005 Pa (1.84E-007 mm Hg)
  Log Koa (Koawin est  ): 11.351
   Kp (particle/gas partition coef. (m3/ug)):
       Mackay model           :  0.122 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  0.0551 
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi):
       Junge-Pankow model     :  0.815 
       Mackay model           :  0.907 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  0.815 

 Atmospheric Oxidation (25 deg C) [AopWin v1.92]:
   Hydroxyl Radicals Reaction:
      OVERALL OH Rate Constant =  50.0000 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec
      Half-Life =     0.214 Days (12-hr day; 1.5E6 OH/cm3)
      Half-Life =     2.567 Hrs
   Ozone Reaction:
      No Ozone Reaction Estimation
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi): 0.861 (Junge,Mackay)
    Note: the sorbed fraction may be resistant to atmospheric oxidation

 Soil Adsorption Coefficient (PCKOCWIN v1.66):
      Koc    :  8.031E+005
      Log Koc:  5.905 

 Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]:
    Rate constants can NOT be estimated for this structure!

 Bioaccumulation Estimates from Log Kow (BCFWIN v2.17):
   Log BCF from regression-based method = 4.259 (BCF = 1.815e+004)
       log Kow used: 6.44 (expkow database)

 Volatilization from Water:
    Henry LC:  3E-007 atm-m3/mole  (Henry experimental database)
    Half-Life from Model River:       3102  hours   (129.2 days)
    Half-Life from Model Lake : 3.397E+004  hours   (1415 days)

 Removal In Wastewater Treatment:
    Total removal:              93.35  percent
    Total biodegradation:        0.77  percent
    Total sludge adsorption:    92.57  percent
    Total to Air:                0.00  percent
      (using 10000 hr Bio P,A,S)

 Level III Fugacity Model:
           Mass Amount    Half-Life    Emissions
            (percent)        (hr)       (kg/hr)
   Air       0.0446          5.13         1000       
   Water     1.98            1.44e+003    1000       
   Soil      34.7            2.88e+003    1000       
   Sediment  63.2            1.3e+004     0          
     Persistence Time: 4.46e+003 hr




                    

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