ChemSpider 2D Image | primidone | C12H14N2O2

primidone

  • Molecular FormulaC12H14N2O2
  • Average mass218.252 Da
  • Monoisotopic mass218.105530 Da
  • ChemSpider ID4740

More details:



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Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

125-33-7 [RN]
13AFD7670Q
204-737-0 [EINECS]
248
2-Desoxyphenobarbital
4,6(1H,5H)-Pyrimidinedione, 5-ethyldihydro-5-phenyl- [ACD/Index Name]
4,6-Pyrimidinediol, 5-ethyl-2,5-dihydro-5-phenyl- [ACD/Index Name]
5-Ethyl-5-phenyl-2,5-dihydro-4,6-pyrimidindiol [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
5-Ethyl-5-phenyl-2,5-dihydro-4,6-pyrimidinediol [ACD/IUPAC Name]
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Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

BRN 0218034 [DBID]
C07371 [DBID]
CCRIS 54 [DBID]
D00474 [DBID]
DivK1c_000324 [DBID]
EU-0101021 [DBID]
HSDB 3169 [DBID]
KBio1_000324 [DBID]
KBio2_001312 [DBID]
KBio2_003880 [DBID]
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  • Experimental Physico-chemical Properties
  • Predicted Physico-chemical Properties
  • Miscellaneous
    • Appearance:

      WHITE POWDER NIH Clinical Collection [SMR000058501]
    • Safety:

      N03AA03 Wikidata Q420383
    • Target Organs:

      AChR antagonist;GABAR;GluR antagonist;Sodium Channel inhibitor TargetMol T0024
    • Chemical Class:

      A pyrimidone that is dihydropyrimidine-4,6(1<element>H</element>,5<element>H</element>)-dione substituted by an ethyl and a phenyl group at position 5. It is used as an anticonvulsant for treatment o f various types of seizures. ChEBI CHEBI:8412
    • Drug Status:

      approved BIONET-Key Organics KS-5217
    • Compound Source:

      synthetic Microsource [01500501]
    • Bio Activity:

      Anticonvulsant. Tocris Bioscience 0830, 830
      GABA Receptor MedChem Express HY-B0339
      GABAA and A-rho Receptors Tocris Bioscience 830
      Ion Channels Tocris Bioscience 830
      Ligand-gated Ion Channels Tocris Bioscience 830
      Membrane Tranporter/Ion Channel MedChem Express HY-B0339
      Membrane Tranporter/Ion Channel; Neuronal Signaling; MedChem Express HY-B0339
      Membrane Transporter/Ion Channel; Neuroscience TargetMol T0024
      Neuronal AChR;GABAR;Glutamate receptor 2;Sodium channel TargetMol T0024
      Potentiates GABAA receptor function Tocris Bioscience 0830, 830
      Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the pyrimidinedione class. MedChem Express
      Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the pyrimidinedione class.; Target: GABA Receptor; Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the pyrimidinedione class, the active metabolites of which, phenobarbital (minor) and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA) (major), are also anticonvulsants. MedChem Express HY-B0339
      Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the pyrimidinedione class.;Target: GABA ReceptorPrimidone is an anticonvulsant of the pyrimidinedione class, the active metabolites of which, phenobarbital (minor) and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA) (major), are also anticonvulsants. It is believed to work via interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels which inhibit high-frequency repetitive firing of action potentials [1]. The effect of primidone in essential tremor is not mediated by PEMA.[76] The major metabolite, phenobarbital, is also a potent anticonvulsant in its own right and likely contributes to primidone's effects in many forms of epilepsy [2]. Primidone and the other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants can cut the half-life of antipyrine roughly in half (6.2 ? 1.9 h vs. 11.2 ? 4.2 h), and increases the clearance rate by almost 70%. Phenobarbital reduces the half-life to 4.8 ? 1.3 and increases the clearance by almost 109% [3]. MedChem Express HY-B0339
  • Gas Chromatography
    • Retention Index (Kovats):

      1854 (estimated with error: 83) NIST Spectra mainlib_244337, replib_335106, replib_113833, replib_246244, replib_312906
      2239 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 275 C; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: DB-1; Carrier gas: N2; Phase thickness: 1.5 um; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Japp, M.; Gill, R.; Osselton, M.D., Comparison of drug retention indices determined on packed, wide bore capillary and narrow bore capillary columns, J. Forensic Sci., 32(6), 1987, 1574-1586.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2242 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 275 C; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: BP-1; Carrier gas: N2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Japp, M.; Gill, R.; Osselton, M.D., Comparison of drug retention indices determined on packed, wide bore capillary and narrow bore capillary columns, J. Forensic Sci., 32(6), 1987, 1574-1586.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2243 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 250 C; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: SPB-1; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Lora-Tamayo, C.; Rams, M.A.; Chacon, J.M.R., Gas Chromatographic Data for 187 Nitrogen- or Phosphorus-Containing Drugs and Metabolites of Toxicological Interest Analysed on Methyl Silicone Capillary Columns, J. Chromatogr., 374, 1986, 73-85.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2202 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.49 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 100 C; End T: 275 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: SE-30; Phase thickness: 1.14 um; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Schepers, P.; Wijsbeek, J.; Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A., Applicability of capillary gas chromatography to substance identification in toxicology by means of retention indices, J. Forensic Sci., 27(1), 1982, 49-60.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2254 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 15 m; Column type: Capillary; Start T: 220 C; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.2 um; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Phillips, A.M.; Logan, B.K.; Stafford, D.T., Further applications for capillary gas chromatography in routine quantitative toxicological analyses, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 13, 1990, 754-758.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Normal Alkane):

      2244.7 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.75 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 155 C; End T: 290 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: SPB-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 10 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Coudore, F.; Alazard, J.-M.; Paire, M.; Andraud, G.; Lavarenne, J., Rapid toxicological screening of barbiturates in plasma by wide-bore capillary gas chromatography and nitrogen-phosphorus detection, J. Anal. Toxicol., 17, 1993, 109-113.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2227.2 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 12 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 290 C; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Neill, G.P.; Davies, N.W.; McLean, S., Automated screening procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification of drugs after their extraction from biological samples, J. Chromatogr., 565, 1991, 207-224.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2200 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column length: 2 m; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 2.5 K/min; Start T: 120 C; End T: 200 C; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: SE-30; Substrate: Gas Chrom P; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Marozzi, E.; Gambaro, V.; Saligari, E.; Mariani, R.; Lodi, F., Use of the retention index in gas chromatographic studies of drugs, J. Anal. Toxicol., 6, 1982, 185-192.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2225 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column length: 2 m; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 2.5 K/min; Start T: 120 C; End T: 200 C; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: OV-1; Substrate: Gas Chrom P; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Marozzi, E.; Gambaro, V.; Saligari, E.; Mariani, R.; Lodi, F., Use of the retention index in gas chromatographic studies of drugs, J. Anal. Toxicol., 6, 1982, 185-192.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2247 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Other; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: Methyl Silicone; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ardrey, R.E.; Moffat, A.C., Gas-liquid chromatographic retention indices of 1318 substances of toxicological interest on SE-30 or OV-1 stationary phase, J. Chromatogr., 220, 1981, 195-252.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2248.7 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column length: 2 m; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 220 C; End T: 270 C; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: OV-101; Substrate: Chromosorb (100-120 mesh); Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Cailleux, A.; Turcant, A.; Premel-Cabic, A.; Allain, P., Identification and Quantitation of Neutral and Basic Drugs in Blood By Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 19, 1981, 163-176.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      2253.3 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 70 0C (0.7 min) ^ 20 0C/min -> 140 0C ^ 10 0C/min -> 280 0C (4 min); CAS no: 125337; Active phase: NB-54; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.10 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ojanpera, I.; Rasanen, I.; Vuori, E., Automated quantitative screening for acidic and neutral drugs in whole blood by dual-column capillary gas chromatography, J. Anal. Toxicol., 15, 1991, 204-208.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Linear):

      2250 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column length: 1.8 m; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 130 C; End T: 290 C; End time: 8 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 125337; Active phase: SE-30; Carrier gas: N2; Substrate: Chromosorb W; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Perrigo, B.J.; Peel, H.W., The use of retention indices and temperature-programmed gas chromatography in analytical toxicology, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 19, 1981, 219-226.) NIST Spectra nist ri

Predicted data is generated using the ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module

Density: 1.1±0.1 g/cm3
Boiling Point: 520.7±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Vapour Pressure: 0.0±1.4 mmHg at 25°C
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 79.4±3.0 kJ/mol
Flash Point: 228.2±30.3 °C
Index of Refraction: 1.529
Molar Refractivity: 59.1±0.3 cm3
#H bond acceptors: 4
#H bond donors: 2
#Freely Rotating Bonds: 2
#Rule of 5 Violations: 0
ACD/LogP: 0.40
ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 0.61
ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.71
ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 51.05
ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 0.61
ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.71
ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 51.05
Polar Surface Area: 58 Å2
Polarizability: 23.4±0.5 10-24cm3
Surface Tension: 38.5±3.0 dyne/cm
Molar Volume: 191.7±3.0 cm3

Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™

                        
 Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC):
    Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) =  0.73
    Log Kow (Exper. database match) =  0.91
       Exper. Ref:  Hansch,C et al. (1995)

 Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42):
    Boiling Pt (deg C):  463.54  (Adapted Stein & Brown method)
    Melting Pt (deg C):  195.57  (Mean or Weighted MP)
    VP(mm Hg,25 deg C):  3.3E-010  (Modified Grain method)
    MP  (exp database):  281.5 deg C
    Subcooled liquid VP: 2.26E-007 mm Hg (25 deg C, Mod-Grain method)

 Water Solubility Estimate from Log Kow (WSKOW v1.41):
    Water Solubility at 25 deg C (mg/L):  5874
       log Kow used: 0.91 (expkow database)
       no-melting pt equation used
     Water Sol (Exper. database match) =  500 mg/L (22 deg C)
        Exper. Ref:  YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)

 Water Sol Estimate from Fragments:
    Wat Sol (v1.01 est) =  2.4468e+005 mg/L
    Wat Sol (Exper. database match) =  500.00
       Exper. Ref:  YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)

 ECOSAR Class Program (ECOSAR v0.99h):
    Class(es) found:
       Neutral Organics

 Henrys Law Constant (25 deg C) [HENRYWIN v3.10]:
   Bond Method :   1.94E-010  atm-m3/mole
   Group Method:   Incomplete
 Henrys LC [VP/WSol estimate using EPI values]:  1.613E-014 atm-m3/mole

 Log Octanol-Air Partition Coefficient (25 deg C) [KOAWIN v1.10]:
  Log Kow used:  0.91  (exp database)
  Log Kaw used:  -8.101  (HenryWin est)
      Log Koa (KOAWIN v1.10 estimate):  9.011
      Log Koa (experimental database):  None

 Probability of Rapid Biodegradation (BIOWIN v4.10):
   Biowin1 (Linear Model)         :   1.0081
   Biowin2 (Non-Linear Model)     :   0.9954
 Expert Survey Biodegradation Results:
   Biowin3 (Ultimate Survey Model):   2.4183  (weeks-months)
   Biowin4 (Primary Survey Model) :   3.7952  (days        )
 MITI Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin5 (MITI Linear Model)    :   0.4943
   Biowin6 (MITI Non-Linear Model):   0.4211
 Anaerobic Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin7 (Anaerobic Linear Model): -1.0665
 Ready Biodegradability Prediction:   NO

Hydrocarbon Biodegradation (BioHCwin v1.01):
    Structure incompatible with current estimation method!

 Sorption to aerosols (25 Dec C)[AEROWIN v1.00]:
  Vapor pressure (liquid/subcooled):  3.01E-005 Pa (2.26E-007 mm Hg)
  Log Koa (Koawin est  ): 9.011
   Kp (particle/gas partition coef. (m3/ug)):
       Mackay model           :  0.0996 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  0.000252 
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi):
       Junge-Pankow model     :  0.782 
       Mackay model           :  0.888 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  0.0197 

 Atmospheric Oxidation (25 deg C) [AopWin v1.92]:
   Hydroxyl Radicals Reaction:
      OVERALL OH Rate Constant =  34.8062 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec
      Half-Life =     0.307 Days (12-hr day; 1.5E6 OH/cm3)
      Half-Life =     3.688 Hrs
   Ozone Reaction:
      No Ozone Reaction Estimation
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi): 0.835 (Junge,Mackay)
    Note: the sorbed fraction may be resistant to atmospheric oxidation

 Soil Adsorption Coefficient (PCKOCWIN v1.66):
      Koc    :  715.4
      Log Koc:  2.855 

 Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]:
    Rate constants can NOT be estimated for this structure!

 Bioaccumulation Estimates from Log Kow (BCFWIN v2.17):
   Log BCF from regression-based method = 0.500 (BCF = 3.162)
       log Kow used: 0.91 (expkow database)

 Volatilization from Water:
    Henry LC:  1.94E-010 atm-m3/mole  (estimated by Bond SAR Method)
    Half-Life from Model River: 4.459E+006  hours   (1.858E+005 days)
    Half-Life from Model Lake : 4.864E+007  hours   (2.027E+006 days)

 Removal In Wastewater Treatment:
    Total removal:               1.88  percent
    Total biodegradation:        0.09  percent
    Total sludge adsorption:     1.79  percent
    Total to Air:                0.00  percent
      (using 10000 hr Bio P,A,S)

 Level III Fugacity Model:
           Mass Amount    Half-Life    Emissions
            (percent)        (hr)       (kg/hr)
   Air       0.102           7.38         1000       
   Water     43              900          1000       
   Soil      56.8            1.8e+003     1000       
   Sediment  0.0892          8.1e+003     0          
     Persistence Time: 920 hr




                    

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