ChemSpider 2D Image | Valeric acid | C5H10O2

Valeric acid

  • Molecular FormulaC5H10O2
  • Average mass102.132 Da
  • Monoisotopic mass102.068077 Da
  • ChemSpider ID7701

More details:



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Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

109-52-4 [RN]
1-pentanoic acid
Acide valérique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Kyselina valerova [Czech]
n-Pentanoic acid
Pentanoic acid [ACD/Index Name]
Valerianic acid
Valeriansäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Valeric acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
10025-83-9 [RN]
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Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users

CHEBI:17418 [DBID]
110140_ALDRICH [DBID]
240370_ALDRICH [DBID]
75054_FLUKA [DBID]
AI3-08657 [DBID]
AIDS017600 [DBID]
AIDS-017600 [DBID]
bmse000345 [DBID]
BRN 0969454 [DBID]
C00803 [DBID]
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  • Experimental Physico-chemical Properties
  • Miscellaneous
    • Appearance:

      colourless to pale yellow mobile liquid/unpleasant, penetrating rancid odour Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Pentanoic acid
    • Safety:

      26-36-45-61 Alfa Aesar A16238
      34-52/53 Alfa Aesar A16238
      8 Alfa Aesar A16238
      Danger Alfa Aesar A16238
      DANGER: CORROSIVE, burns skin and eyes Alfa Aesar A16238
      H314-H412 Alfa Aesar A16238
      IRRITANT Matrix Scientific 083018
      P260-P303+P361+P353-P305+P351+P338-P301+P330+P331-P405-P501a Alfa Aesar A16238
      R34 R52/53 LKT Labs [V0144]
  • Gas Chromatography
    • Retention Index (Kovats):

      875 (estimated with error: 51) NIST Spectra mainlib_291398, replib_194032, replib_229860
      883 (Program type: Isothermal; Col... (show more) umn class: Standard non-polar; Column length: 2 m; Column type: Packed; Start T: 170 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: E-301; Carrier gas: He; Substrate: Celite 545 (0.20-0.50 mm); Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Shashkova, A.A.; Znamenskaia, A.P.; Pas'ko, L.Ya., Investigation of esters of odd series halohenated acids with Kovats indices, Gazovaya Khromatografiya, , 1969, 40-47.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1685 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 80 C; End T: 200 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Data type: Kovats RI; Authors: Nishimura, O.; Yamaguchi, K.; Mihara, S.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile Constituents of Guava Fruits (Psidium guajava L.) and Canned Puree, J. Agric. Food Chem., 37(1), 1989, 139-142.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Lee):

      137 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 285 C; End time: 29.5 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Donnelly, J.R.; Abdel-Hamid, M.S.; Jeter, J.L.; Gurka, D.F., Application of gas chromatographic retention properties to the identification of environmental contaminants, J. Chromatogr., 642, 1993, 409-415.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Normal Alkane):

      900 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C(5min)=>8C/min=>200C=>2C/min=>250C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SE-54; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Suzuki, J.; Bailey, M.E., Direct sampling capillary GLC analysis of flavor volatiles from ovine fat, J. Agric. Food Chem., 33(3), 1985, 343-347., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SE-30; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      901.9 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 270 C; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Petro 100; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lu, X.; Cai, J.; Kong, H.; Wu, M.; Hua, R.; Zhao, M.; Liu, J.; Xu, G., Analysis of cigarette smoke condensates by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. I. Acidic fraction, Anal. Chem., 75(17), 2003, 4441-4451.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      931 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 300 C; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: AT-1; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Kelling, F.J., Olfaction in houseflies: morphology and electrophysiology. Chapter 7. Chemical and electrophysiological analysis of components, present in natural products that attract houseflies, Dissertation, University of Groningen, The Netherlands, 2001.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      880 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 30 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 25 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-1; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Buttery, R.G.; Ling, L.C.; Stern, D.J., Studies on popcorn aroma and flavor volatiles, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 1997, 837-843.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      888 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 3 min at 5 C; 5 - 50 C at 3 deg/min; 50 - 220 C at 5 deg/min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-1; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Sparapani, R.; Frattoni, M., Identification and determination of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in forest areas of Northern and Southern Europe and a remote site of the Himalaya region by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 643, 1993, 55-69., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-1; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Brachetti, A.; Frattoni, M.; Sparapani, R., Composition and Distribution of Polar and Non-Polar VOCs in Urban, Rural, Forest and Remote Areas, Eur Commission EUR, , 1994, 549-568.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      911 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C (2min) => 40C/min => 60C (2min) =>6C/min => 180C => 10C/min => 240C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SE-54; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Schermann, P.; Schieberle, P., Evaluation of key odorants in milk chocolate and cocoa mass by aroma extract dilution analyses, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 1997, 867-872., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C(2min) =>40C/min =>60C(2min) =>6C/min =>180C=> 10C/min => 230C(10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SE-54; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lasekan, O.; Buettner, A.; Christlbauer, M., Investigation of important odorants of palm wine (Elaeis guineensis), Food Chem., 105, 2007, 15-23., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(2min) =>40C/min =>60C(2min) =>6C/min => 180C =>15C/min => 230C(10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Buettner, A., A selective and sensitive approach to characterize odour-active and volatile constituents in small-scale human milk samples, Flavour Fragr. J., 22, 2007, 465-473., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: RTX-5 MS; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Mebazaa, R.; Mahmoudi, A.; Fouchet, M.; Dos Santos, M.; Kamissoko, F.; Nafti, A.; Ben Cheikh, R.; Rega, B.; Camel, V., Characterization of volatile compounds in Tunisian fenugreek seeds, Food Chem., 115, 2009, 1326-1336., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Czerny, M.; Grosch, W., Potent odorants of raw Arabica coffee. Their changes during roasting, J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 2000, 868-872.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      928 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 50 0C (5 min) ^ 2 0C/min -> 100 0C (5 min) ^ 5 0C/min -> 300 0C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: RTX-5 MS; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Mebazaa, R.; Mahmoudi, A.; Fouchet, M.; Dos Santos, M.; Kamissoko, F.; Nafti, A.; Ben Cheikh, R.; Rega, B.; Camel, V., Characterization of volatile compounds in Tunisian fenugreek seeds, Food Chem., 115, 2009, 1326-1336.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      887 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.10 mm; Column length: 10 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 20 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 1 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.40 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Mildner-Szkudlarz, S.; Jelen, H.H., The potential of different techniques for volatile compounds analysis coupled with PCA for the detection of the adulteration of olive oil with hazelnut oil, Food Chem., 110, 2008, 751-761.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      920 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 20 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: RTX-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Pham, A.J.; Schilling, M.W.; Yoon, Y.; Kamadia, V.V.; Marshall, D.L., Characterization of fish sauce aroma-impact compounds using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' power law exponents, J. Food. Sci., 73(4), 2008, c268-c274.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      915 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-5MS; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Mallia, S.; Escher, F.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H., Aroma-active secondary oxidation products of butter, 2007.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      893 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 0 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 7 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 10 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: 5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ramirez, M.R.; Estevez, M.; Morcuende, D.; Cava, R., Effect of the type of frying culinary fat on volatile compounds isolated in fried pork loin chops by using SPME-GC-MS, J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 2004, 7637-7643., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 38 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 2 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-5MS; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Krist, S.; Stuebiger, G.; Unterweger, H.; Bandion, F.; Buchbauer, G., Analysis of volatile compounds and triglycerides of seed oils extracted from different poppy varieties (Papaver somniferum L.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 2005, 8310-8316.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      878 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(10min)=> 5C/min => 200C =>20C/min =>250C (5min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 1.05 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Garcia-Estaban, M.; Ansorena, D.; Astiasaran, I.; Ruiz, J., Study of the effect of different fiber coatings and extraction conditions on dry cured ham volatile compounds extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), Talanta, 64, 2004, 458-466., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(10min)=>5C/min=>200C=>20C/min=>250C(5min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-5; Phase thickness: 1.05 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Garcia-Estaban, M.; Ansorena, D.; Astiasaran, I.; Martin, D.; Ruiz, J., Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of volatile compounds in dry-cured ham, J. Sci. Food Agric., 84, 2004, 1364-1370.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      872 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SPB-5; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Begnaud, F.; Peres, C.; Berdague, J.-L., Characterization of volatile effluents of livestock buildings by solid-phase microextraction, Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 83(10), 2003, 837-849.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      904 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C (4min) => 2C/min => 90C =>4C/min =>130C => 8C/min =>250 C (10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: BPX-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Machiels, D.; van Ruth, S.M.; Posthumus, M.A.; Istasse, L., Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats, Talanta, 60, 2003, 755-764.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      922 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 20 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 1 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: MDN-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Mildner-Szkudlarz, S.; Jelen, H.H.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Wasowicz, E., Application of headspace - solid phase microextraction and multivariate analysis for plant oils differentiation, Food Chem., 83, 2003, 515-522.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      878.1 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SPB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1.0 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Pinho, O.; Peres, C.; Ferreira, I.M.P.L.V.O., Solid-phase microextraction of volatile compounds in "Terrincho" ewe cheese. Comparison of different fibers, J. Chromatogr. A, 1011, 2003, 1-9.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      867 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 30 C; End T: 230 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SPB-5; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 1.0 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Sebastian, I.; Viallon-Fernandez, C.; Berge, P.; Berdague, J.-L., Analysis of the volatile fraction of lamb fat tissue: influence of the type of feeding, Sciences des Aliments, 23, 2003, 497-511.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      884.9 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 230 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: CP Sil 8 CB; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ezquerro, O.; Pons, B.; Tena, M.T., Development of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the identification of odour-causing volatile compounds in packaging materials, J. Chromatogr. A, 963, 2002, 381-392.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      898 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 0.5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Guillen, M.D.; Manzanos, M.J., Study of the volatile composition of an aqueous oak smoke preparation, Food Chem., 79, 2002, 283-292.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      875 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 240 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Garcia, C.; Martin, A.; Timon, M.L.; Cordoba, J.J., Microbial populations and volatile compounds in the 'bone taint' spoilage of dry cured ham, Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 30, 2000, 61-66.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      891.2 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45 0C ^ 8 K/min -> 115 0C (2 min) ^ 5K/min -> 280 0C (20 min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Loloiu, T.; Radulescu, V., Capillary GC-MS investigation of chemical composition of Hypericum perforatum, 2000.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      881 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35 0C ^ 10 0C/min -> 200 0C (20 min) ^ 5 0C/min -> 230 0C (50 min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.52 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Timon, M.L.; Ventanas, J.; Martin, L.; Tejeda, J.F.; Garcia, C., Volatile compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Iberian ham, J. Agric. Food Chem., 46(12), 1998, 5143-5150.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      892 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Ultra-2; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.52 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: King, M.-F.; Matthews, M.A.; Rule, D.C.; Field, R.A., Effect of beef packaging method on volatile compounds developed by oven roasting or microwave cooking, J. Agric. Food Chem., 43, 1995, 773-778.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      934 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Ultra-2; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.52 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: King, M.-F.; Hamilton, B.L.; Matthews, M.A.; Rule, D.C.; Field, R.A., Isolation and identification of volatiles and condensable material in raw beef with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, J. Agric. Food Chem., 41(11), 1993, 1974-1981.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      885 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35 0C (5 min) ^ 8 0C/min -> 200 0C ^ 2 0C/min -> 250 0C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SE-54; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Um, K.W.; Bailey, M.E.; Clarke, A.D.; Chao, R.R., Concentration and identification of volatile compounds from heated beef fat using supercritical CO2 extraction-gas liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 40(9), 1992, 1641-1646.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1721 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C (2min) => 40C/min => 60C (2min) =>6C/min => 180C => 10C/min => 240C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Schermann, P.; Schieberle, P., Evaluation of key odorants in milk chocolate and cocoa mass by aroma extract dilution analyses, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 1997, 867-872., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Mebazaa, R.; Mahmoudi, A.; Fouchet, M.; Dos Santos, M.; Kamissoko, F.; Nafti, A.; Ben Cheikh, R.; Rega, B.; Camel, V., Characterization of volatile compounds in Tunisian fenugreek seeds, Food Chem., 115, 2009, 1326-1336.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1740 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 50 0C ^ 2 0C/min -> 100 0C (5 min) ^ 5 0C/min -> 250 0C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Mebazaa, R.; Mahmoudi, A.; Fouchet, M.; Dos Santos, M.; Kamissoko, F.; Nafti, A.; Ben Cheikh, R.; Rega, B.; Camel, V., Characterization of volatile compounds in Tunisian fenugreek seeds, Food Chem., 115, 2009, 1326-1336., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: EC-1000; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Bendall, J.G., Aroma compounds of fresh milk from New Zealand cows fed different diets, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 4825-4832., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 180 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Sekiwa, Y.; Kubota, K.; Kobayashi, A., Characteristic flavor components in the brew of cooked clam (Meretrix lusoria) and the effect of storage on flavor formation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 1997, 826-830.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1720 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C(2min) =>40C/min =>60C(2min) =>6C/min =>230C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Zehentbauer, G.; Grosch, W., Crust aroma of baguettes. I. Key odorants of baguettes prepared in two different ways, J. Cereal Science, 28, 1998, 81-92., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C(2min) =>40C/min =>50C(2min) =>6C/min =>180C=> 10C/min => 230C(10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lasekan, O.; Buettner, A.; Christlbauer, M., Investigation of important odorants of palm wine (Elaeis guineensis), Food Chem., 105, 2007, 15-23., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(2min) =>40C/min =>60C(2min) =>6C/min => 180C =>15C/min => 230C(10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Buettner, A., A selective and sensitive approach to characterize odour-active and volatile constituents in small-scale human milk samples, Flavour Fragr. J., 22, 2007, 465-473., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.64 mm; Column length: 150 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 1 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 170 C; End time: 60 min; Start time: 30 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Buttery, R.G.; Ling, L.C.; Teranishi, R.; Mon, T.R., Insect attractants: volatiles of hydrolizyed protein insect baits, J. Agric. Food Chem., 31, 1983, 689-692.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1751 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: N2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Dilution Analysis of Young and Aged Chinese "Yanghe Daqu" Liquors, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 2005, 7931-7938., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 8 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: CP-Wax 52CB; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Povolo, M.; Contarini, G.; Mele, M.; Secchiari, P., Study on the influence of pasture on volatile fraction of Ewes' dairy products by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Dairy Sci., 90, 2007, 556-569.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1718 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: RTX-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Prososki, R.A.; Etzel, M.R.; Rankin, S.A., Solvent type affects the number, distribution, and relative quantities of volatile compounds found in sweet whey powder, J. Dairy Sci., 90, 2007, 523-531.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1756 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 70 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: BP-20; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Rawat, R.; Gulati, A.; Babu, G.D.K.; Acharya, R.; Kaul, V.K.; Singh, B., Characterization of volatile components of Kangra orthodox black tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Food Chem., 105, 2007, 229-235., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: ZB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Wierda R.L.; Fletcher G.; Xu L.; Dufour J.P., Analysis of volatile compounds as spoilage indicators in fresh king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during storage using SPME-GC-MS, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2006, 8480-8490.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1772 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 30C(2min) =>4C/min =>130C =>8C/min =>250C(5min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-Innowax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Weldegergis B.T.; Tredoux A.G.J.; Crouch A.M., Application of a headspace sorptive extraction method for the analysis of volatile components in South African wines, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 8696-8702.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1727 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Xu, Y.; Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Characterization of Aroma Compounds in Apple Cider Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 3051-3057., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Characterization of Aroma Compounds of Chinese "Wuliangye" and "Jiannanchun" Liquors by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2006, 2695-2704.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1753 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C(4min) => 30C/min=> 60C (5min) => 3C/min =>220C(40min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Ziegleder, G., Volatile and odorous compounds in unprinted paperboard, Packag. Technol. Sci., 11, 1998, 231-239., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: N2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Identification of aroma compounds in Chinese 'Yanghe Daqu' liquor by normal phase chromatography fractionation followed by gas chromatography/olfactometry, Flavour Fragr. J., 21, 2006, 333-342.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1746 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C(5min) =>5C/min =>150C =>10C/min =>240C (10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Krings, U.; Zelena, K.; Wu, S.; Berger, R.G., Thin-layer high-vacuum distillation to isolate volatile flavour compounds of cocoa powder, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 223, 2006, 675-681.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1766 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 180 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Stabilwax DA; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Nogueira, M.C.L.; Lubachevsky, G.; Rankin, S.A., A study of the volatile composition of Minas cheese, Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 38, 2005, 555-563.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1731 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40 0C (2 min) ^ 6 K/min -> 190 0C ^ 12 K/min -> 240 0C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Steinhaus, M.; Schieberle, P., Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 2005, 6049-6055., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Riganakos, K.A.; Koller, W.D.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Bauer, B.; Kontominas, M.G., Effects of ionizing radiation on properties of monolayer and multilayer flexible food packaging materials, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 54, 1999, 527-540.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1743 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 220 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lopez, R.; Ezpeleta, E.; Sanchez, I.; Cacho, J.; Ferreira, V., Analysis of the aroma intensities of volatile compounds released from mild acid hydrolysates of odourless precursors extracted from Tempranillo and Grenache grapes using gas chromatography-olfactometry, Food Chem., 88, 2004, 95-103.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1763 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1730 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 185 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lee, S.-J.; Noble, A.C., Characterization of odor-active compounds in Californian Chardonnay wines using GC-olfactometry and GC-mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 2003, 8036-8044., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 30 C; End T: 170 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Buttery, R.G.; Ling, L.C., Additional studies on flavor components of corn tortilla chips, J. Agric. Food Chem., 46(7), 1998, 2764-2769., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 30 C; End T: 170 C; End time: 60 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Buttery, R.G.; Orts, W.J.; Takeoka, G.R.; Nam, Y., Volatile flavor components of rice cakes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 47, 1999, 4353-4356., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 210 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Iwatsuki, K.; Mizota, Y.; Kubota, T.; Nishimura, O.; Masuda, H.; Sotoyama, K.; Tomita, M., Aroma extract dilution analysis. Evluation of aroma of pasteurized and UHT processed milk by aroma extract dilution analysis, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 46(9), 1999, 587-597.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1734.3 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 50 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lu, X.; Cai, J.; Kong, H.; Wu, M.; Hua, R.; Zhao, M.; Liu, J.; Xu, G., Analysis of cigarette smoke condensates by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. I. Acidic fraction, Anal. Chem., 75(17), 2003, 4441-4451.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1741 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 30 C; End T: 250 C; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Tanaka, T.; Yamauchi, T.; Katsumata, R.; Kiuchi, K., Comparison of volatile components in commercial Itohiki-Natto by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 50(6), 2003, 278-285.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1726 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Czerny, M.; Schieberle, P., Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour-identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 6835-6840.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1712 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Fu, S.-G.; Yoon, Y.; Basemore, R., Aroma-actie components in fermented bamboo shoots, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 549-554.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1700 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 240 C; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lecanu, L.; Ducruet, V.; Jouquand, C.; Gratadoux, J.J.; Feigenbaum, A., Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the odor analysis of surface-ripened cheese, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 3810-3817.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1698 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 180 C; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Kawakami, M.; Kobayashi, A.; Kator, K., Volatile constituents of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) as affected by extraction process, J. Agric. Food Chem., 41(4), 1993, 633-636., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 240 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.52 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Qian, M.; Reineccius, G., Identification of aroma compounds in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese by gas chromatography/olfactometry, J. Dairy Sci., 85(6), 2002, 1362-1369.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1738 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 10 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: TC-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Suhardi, S.; Suzuki, M.; Yoshida, K.; Muto, T.; Fujita, A.; Watanbe, N., Changes in the volatile compounds and in the chemical and physical properties of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Cv. Pondoh during maturation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 7627-7633.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1747 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 25 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C(5min)=> 20C/min => 100C(1min)=> 3C/min => 190C(40min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Nukol; Carrier gas: N2; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Lopez, M.G.; Dufour, J.P., Chapter 6. Tequilas: charm analysis of Blanco, Teposado, and Anejo tequilas, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser., 782, 2001, 62-72., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 15 m; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Stabilwax DA; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Henderson, D.E.; Henderson, S.K., Thermal decomposition of capsaicin. 1. Interactions with oleic acid at high temperatures, J. Agric. Food Chem., 40(11), 1992, 2263-2268., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 1 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 175 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Supelcowax-10; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Hsieh, T.C.Y.; Williams, S.S.; Vejaphan, W.; Meyers, S.P., Characterization of Volatile Components of Menhaden Fish (Brevoortia tyrannus) Oil, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 66(1), 1989, 114-117.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1723 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 195 C; End time: 40 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Suriyaphan, O.; Drake, M.; Chen, X.Q.; Cadwallader, K.R., Characteristic aroma components of British farmhouse cheddar cheese, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 1382-1387.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1725 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 5 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Czerny, M.; Grosch, W., Potent odorants of raw Arabica coffee. Their changes during roasting, J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 2000, 868-872.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1733 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 210 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Iwatsuki, K.; Mizota, Y.; Kubota, T.; Nishimura, O.; Masuda, H.; Sotoyama, K.; Tomita, M., Aroma extract dilution analysis. Evluation of aroma of pasteurized and UHT processed milk by aroma extract dilution analysis, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 46(9), 1999, 587-597.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1730.8 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Riganakos, K.A.; Koller, W.D.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Bauer, B.; Kontominas, M.G., Effects of ionizing radiation on properties of monolayer and multilayer flexible food packaging materials, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 54, 1999, 527-540.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1731.4 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Riganakos, K.A.; Koller, W.D.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Bauer, B.; Kontominas, M.G., Effects of ionizing radiation on properties of monolayer and multilayer flexible food packaging materials, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 54, 1999, 527-540.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1733.8 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Riganakos, K.A.; Koller, W.D.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Bauer, B.; Kontominas, M.G., Effects of ionizing radiation on properties of monolayer and multilayer flexible food packaging materials, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 54, 1999, 527-540.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1734.2 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Riganakos, K.A.; Koller, W.D.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Bauer, B.; Kontominas, M.G., Effects of ionizing radiation on properties of monolayer and multilayer flexible food packaging materials, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 54, 1999, 527-540.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1749 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 80 C; End T: 240 C; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: TC-Wax; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Shuichi, H.; Masazumi, N.; Hiromu, K.; Kiyoshi, F., Comparison of volatile compounds berween the crude drugs, Onji-tsutsu and Onji-niki, Nippon nogei kagaku kaishi, 70(2), 1996, 151-160.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1736 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 20 C; End T: 230 C; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Christensen, K.R.; Reineccius, G.A., Aroma extract dilution analysis of aged cheddar cheese, J. Food Sci., 60(2), 1995, 218-220.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1689 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 180 C; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Kawakami, M.; Kobayashi, A., Volatitle constituents of greem mate and roasted mate, J. Agric. Food Chem., 39(7), 1991, 1275-1279., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 180 C; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Kawakami, M.; Ganguly, S.N.; Banerjee, J.; Kobayashi, A., Aroma composition of oolong tea and black tea by brewed extraction method and characterizing compounds of Darjeeling tea aroma, J. Agric. Food Chem., 43, 1995, 200-207.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1732 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C=>40C/min =>60C(2min) =>4C/min =>240C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Schieberle, P.; Grosch, W., Potent odorants of rye bread crust - differences from the crumb and from wheat bread crust, Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 198, 1994, 292-296.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1704.5 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column length: 6 ft; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 70 C; End T: 180 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M-TPA; Carrier gas: He; Substrate: Gas Chrom P (60-80 mesh); Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Fiddler, W.; Doerr, R.C.; Wasserman, A.E., Composition of an ether-soluble fraction of a liquid smoke solution, J. Agric. Food Chem., 18(2), 1970, 310-312.) NIST Spectra nist ri
    • Retention Index (Linear):

      938 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: -20C (5min) => 10C/min => 100C => 4C/min =>200C => 10C/min => 280C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Eri, S.; Khoo, B.K.; Lech, J.; Hartman, T.G., Direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oils in support of varietal characterization, J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 2000, 1140-1149.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      894 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Column length: 15 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(3min)=>8C/min=>200(1min)=>5C/min=>300C(25min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-1; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Peng, C.T., Prediction of retention indices. V. Influence of electronic effects and column polarity on retention index, J. Chromatogr. A, 903, 2000, 117-143., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SPB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Vazquez, C., Volatile components of the fruits of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. from Cuba, J. Essent. Oil Res., 16, 2004, 302-304.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      925 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5MS; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Whetstine, M.E.C.; Cadwallader, K.R.; Drake, M.A., Characterization of aroma compounds responsible for the rosy/floral flavor in cheddar cheese, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 2005, 3126-3132., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard non-polar; Column type: Capillary; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Methyl Silicone; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.; Maltby, D., Prediction of retention indexes. III. Silylated derivatives of polar compounds, J. Chromatogr., 586, 1991, 113-129.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      924 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard non-polar; Column length: 3.05 m; Column type: Packed; Description: 40C(5min)=>10C/min =>200C or 250C (60min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SE-30; Substrate: Supelcoport; Chromosorb; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Peng, C.T.; Ding, S.F.; Hua, R.L.; Yang, Z.C., Prediction of Retention Indexes I. Structure-Retention Index Relationship on Apolar Columns, J. Chromatogr., 436, 1988, 137-172.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      933.3 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: Multi-step temperature program; T(initial)=60C; T(final)=270C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: VF-5MS; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Tret'yakov, K.V., Retention Data. NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center., 2008.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      879 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SPB-5; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Engel, E.; Ratel, J., Correction of the data generated by mass spectrometry analyses of biological tissues: Application to food authentication, J. Chromatogr. A, 1154, 2007, 331-341.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      911 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(2min) =>6C/min =>150C =>20C/min =>230C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SE-54; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Schuh, C.; Schieberle, P., Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in the Beverage Prepared from Darjeeling Black Tea: Quantitative Differences between Tea Leaves and Infusion, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2006, 916-924.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      933 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Avsar, Y.K.; Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Drake, M.A.; Singh, T.K.; Yoon, Y.; Cadwallader, K.R., Characterization of nutty flavor in cheddar cheese, J. Dairy Sci., 87, 2004, 1999-2010.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      921 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: SPB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Rosado, A.; Vazquez, C., Volatile constituents of Malay rose apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & Perry], Flavour Fragr. J., 19, 2004, 32-35., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Cadwallader, K.R.; Drake, M.A., Volatile flavor components of stored nonfat dry milk, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 305-312.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      908 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5MS; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Vlahovich, K.N.; Drake, M.A.; Cadwallader, K.R., Characteristic aroma components of rennet casein, J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 2003, 6797-6801.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      926 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(1min)=>40C/min=>50C(2min)=>6C/min=>240C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Jezussek, M.; Juliano, B.O.; Schieberle, P., Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analysis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 1101-1105.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      902 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-5; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Drake, M.; Cadwallader, K.R., Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 2948-2953.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1733 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 225 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Jarunrattanasri, A.; Theerakulkait, C.; Cadwallader, K.R., Aroma Components of Acid-Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Made by Partial Hydrolysis of Rice Bran Protein, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 3044-3050.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1744 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Pozo-Bayon M.A.; Ruiz-Rodriguez A.; Pernin K.; Cayot N., Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 1418-1426.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1734 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 50C=> 6C/min => 70C =>4C/min => 150C => 10C/min => 250C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Pennarun, A.-L.; Prost, C.; Haure, J.; Demaimay, M., Comparison of two microalgal diets. 2. Influence on odorant composition and organoleptic qualities of raw oysters (Crassostrea gigas), J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 2003, 2011-2018., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 50C=> 6C/min =>70C =>4C/min=>150C =>10C/min =>250C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Pennarun, A.L.; Prost, C.; Demaimay, M., Identification and origin of the character-impact compounds of raw oyster Crassostrea gigas, J. Sci. Food Agric., 82, 2002, 1652-1660., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: HP-Innowax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Quijano, C.E.; Linares, D.; Pino, J.A., Changes in volatile compounds of fermented cereza agria [Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels] fruit, Flavour Fragr. J., 22, 2007, 392-394.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1723 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C (2min) =>40C/min => 60C (2min) => 240C (10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Munch, P.; Hofmann, T.; Schieberle, P., Comparison of key odorants generated by thermal treatment of commercial and self-prepared yeast extracts: influence of the amino acid composition on odorant formation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 1997, 1338-1344., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 240 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Steinhaus, P.; Schieberle, P., Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2007, 6262-6269.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1730 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(2min) =>6C/min =>150C =>20C/min =>230C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Schuh, C.; Schieberle, P., Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in the Beverage Prepared from Darjeeling Black Tea: Quantitative Differences between Tea Leaves and Infusion, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2006, 916-924., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Innowax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Lee, S.-J.; Lee, J.-E.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-S.; Koh, K.-H., Development of Korean red wines using Vitis labrusca varieties: instrumental and sensory characterization, Food Chem., 94, 2006, 385-393.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1725 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 60 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: OV-351; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.2 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Bonvehi, J.S., Investigation of aromatic compounds in roasted cocoa powder, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 221, 2005, 19-29.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1686 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 195 C; End time: 60 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Supelcowax-10; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Chung, H.Y.; Fung, P.K.; Kim, J.-S., Aroma impact components in commercial plain sufu, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 2005, 1684-1691.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1762 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 45 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 12 min; Start time: 1 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Malliaa, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, E.; Bosset, J.O., Comparison of purge and trap and solid phase microextraction techniques for studying the volatile aroma compounds of three European PDO hard cheeses, Int. Dairy J., 15, 2005, 741-758.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1766 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 50C(3min) =>3C/min =>100C=>10C/min => 220C (13.5min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Ranau, R.; Steinhart, H., Identification and evaluation of volatile odor-active pollutants from different odor emission sources in the food industry, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 220, 2005, 226-231.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1713 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 20 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Whetstine, M.E.C.; Cadwallader, K.R.; Drake, M.A., Characterization of aroma compounds responsible for the rosy/floral flavor in cheddar cheese, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 2005, 3126-3132.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1720 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Cadwallader, K.R.; Drake, M.A., Volatile flavor components of stored nonfat dry milk, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 305-312., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Avsar, Y.K.; Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Drake, M.A.; Singh, T.K.; Yoon, Y.; Cadwallader, K.R., Characterization of nutty flavor in cheddar cheese, J. Dairy Sci., 87, 2004, 1999-2010.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1729 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C(0.7min) =>20C/min =>70C =>4C/min=> 240C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Ferrari, G.; Lablanquie, O.; Cantagrel, R.; Ledauphin, J.; Payot, T.; Fournier, N.; Guichard, E., Determination of key odorant compounds in freshly distilled cognac using GC-O, GC-MS, and sensory evaluation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 2004, 5670-5676., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 40 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Chen, C.-C.; Kuo, M.-C.; Liu, S.-E.; Wu, C.-M., Volatile components of salted and pickled prunes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 34(1), 1986, 140-144.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1746 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 1.8 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 10 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: ZB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.15 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Ledauphin, J.; Saint-Clair, J.-F.; Lablanquie, O.; Guichard, H.; Founier, N.; Guichard, E.; Barillier, D., Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled calvados and cognac using preparative separations coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 2004, 5124-5134.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1755 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 2 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Mahajan, S.S.; Goddik, L.; Qian, M.C., Aroma Compounds in Sweet Whey Powder, J. Dairy Sci., 87, 2004, 4057-4063.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1745 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C(5min)=>10C/min =>80C=>2C/min=>240C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: CP-Wax 52CB; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Verzera, A.; Ziino, M.; Condurso, C.; Romeo, V.; Zappala, M., Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for rapid characterisation of semi-hard cheeses, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 380, 2004, 930-936.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1718 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Vlahovich, K.N.; Drake, M.A.; Cadwallader, K.R., Characteristic aroma components of rennet casein, J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 2003, 6797-6801.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1708 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(2min) =>40C/min =>60C (2min) =>6C/min =>180C =>10C/min =>240C (5min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Munk, S.; Munch, P.; Stahnke, L.; Adler-Nissen., J.; Schieberle, P., Primary odorants of laundry soiled with sweat/sebum: influence of lipase on the odor profile, Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, 3(4), 2000, 505-515., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 220 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: ZB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Brunton, N.P.; Cronin, D.A.; Monahan, F.J., Volatile components associated with freshly cooked and oxidized off-flavours in turkey breast meat, Flavour Fragr. J., 17, 2002, 327-334.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1724 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(1min)=>40C/min=>50C(2min)=>6C/min=>240C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Jezussek, M.; Juliano, B.O.; Schieberle, P., Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analysis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 1101-1105.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1719 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 20C(30s) =>fast=>60C =>4C/min => 220C (20min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Cantergiani, E.; Brevard, H.; Krebs, Y.; Feria-Morales, A.; Amado, R.; Yeretzian, C., Characterisation of the aroma of green Mexican coffee and identification of mouldy/earthy defect, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 212, 2001, 648-657., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Cadwallader, K.R.; Drake, M.A., Volatile flavor components of stored nonfat dry milk, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 305-312.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1732 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C (2min) => 60C/min =>50C (2min) => 6C/min => 240C (10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Kirchhoff, E.; Schieberle, P., Quantitation of odor-active compounds in rye flour and rye sourdough using stable isotope dilution assays, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 5378-5385., Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(2min)=>40C/min=>60C(2min)=>6C/min=>240C(10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Kirchhoff, E.; Schieberle, P., Determination of key aroma compounds in the crumb of a three-stage sourdough rye bread by stable isotope dilution assays and sensory studies, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 4304-4311.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1711 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 2 K/min; Start T: 65 C; End T: 250 C; End time: 60 min; Start time: 10 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: AT-Wax; Carrier gas: N2; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Bello, A., Volatile compounds of Psidium salutare (H.B.K.) Berg. fruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2002, 5146-5148.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1756 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 10 K/min; Start T: 35 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Drake, M.; Cadwallader, K.R., Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk, J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 2001, 2948-2953.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1753 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 45C(4min) => 30C/min => 60C (5min) => 3C/min => 220C (40min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Ziegleder, G., Odorous compounds in paperboard as influenced by recycled material and storage, Packag. Technol. Sci., 14, 2001, 131-136.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1749 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 210 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Moio, L.; Addeo, F., Grana Padano cheese aroma, J. Dairy Res., 65, 1998, 317-333., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 210 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Moio, L.; Piombino, P.; Addeo, F., Odour-impact compounds of Gorgonzola cheese, J. Dairy Res., 67, 2000, 273-285.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1750 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 210 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Moio, L.; Addeo, F., Grana Padano cheese aroma, J. Dairy Res., 65, 1998, 317-333., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 3 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 210 C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: H2; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Moio, L.; Piombino, P.; Addeo, F., Odour-impact compounds of Gorgonzola cheese, J. Dairy Res., 67, 2000, 273-285.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1780 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Column length: 15 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(3min)=>5C/min=>220(1min)=>5C/min=>300C(25min); Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 220 C; End time: 30 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 1 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Peng, C.T., Prediction of retention indices. V. Influence of electronic effects and column polarity on retention index, J. Chromatogr. A, 903, 2000, 117-143.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1707 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 40C(1min) => 40C/min =>60C =>6C/min =>230C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Jagella, T.; Grosch, W., Flavour and off-flavour compounds of black and white pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) I. Evaluation of potent odorants of black pepper by dilution and concentration techniques, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 209, 1999, 16-21.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1757 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 60 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 230 C; End time: 15 min; Start time: 3 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.5 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Stephan, A.; Steinhart, H., Identification of character impact odorants of different soybean lecithins, J. Agric. Food Chem., 47, 1999, 2854-2859.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1743 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 35C (2min) =>40C/min =>60C (2min) =>6C/min =>230C (10min); CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Kubickova, J.; Grosch, W., Evaluation of potent odorants of camembert cheese by dilution and concentration techniques, Int. Dairy J., 7, 1997, 65-70.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1736 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 4 K/min; Start T: 20 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 5 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: DB-Wax; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Ott, A.; Fay, L.B.; Chaintreau, A., Determination and origin of the aroma impact compounds of yogurt flavor, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 1997, 850-858.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1706 (Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column length: 3.05 m; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; End time: 60 min; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Substrate: Supelcoport; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.; Ding, S.F., Prediction of rentention idexes. II. Structure-retention index relationship on polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 586, 1991, 85-112., Program type: Ramp; Column cl... (show more) ass: Standard polar; Column length: 3.05 m; Column type: Packed; Heat rate: 8 K/min; Start T: 40 C; End T: 200 C; Start time: 4 min; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: Carbowax 20M; Substrate: Supelcoport; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.; Maltby, D., Prediction of retention indexes. III. Silylated derivatives of polar compounds, J. Chromatogr., 586, 1991, 113-129.) NIST Spectra nist ri
      1752 (Program type: Complex; Column... (show more) class: Standard polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 50 m; Column type: Capillary; Description: 20C (5min) => 2C/min =>70C => 4C/min => 210C; CAS no: 109524; Active phase: FFAP; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Linear RI; Authors: Yasuhara, A., Identification of Volatile Compounds in Poultry Manure by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 387, 1987, 371-378.) NIST Spectra nist ri

Predicted data is generated using the ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module

Density: 1.0±0.1 g/cm3
Boiling Point: 185.3±3.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Vapour Pressure: 0.5±0.4 mmHg at 25°C
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 44.6±3.0 kJ/mol
Flash Point: 88.9±0.0 °C
Index of Refraction: 1.421
Molar Refractivity: 26.8±0.3 cm3
#H bond acceptors: 2
#H bond donors: 1
#Freely Rotating Bonds: 3
#Rule of 5 Violations: 0
ACD/LogP: 1.31
ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 0.38
ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00
ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 16.62
ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -1.41
ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00
ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 1.00
Polar Surface Area: 37 Å2
Polarizability: 10.6±0.5 10-24cm3
Surface Tension: 32.8±3.0 dyne/cm
Molar Volume: 105.7±3.0 cm3

Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™

                        
 Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC):
    Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) =  1.56
    Log Kow (Exper. database match) =  1.39
       Exper. Ref:  Hansch,C et al. (1995)

 Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42):
    Boiling Pt (deg C):  187.75  (Adapted Stein & Brown method)
    Melting Pt (deg C):  14.76  (Mean or Weighted MP)
    VP(mm Hg,25 deg C):  0.717  (Mean VP of Antoine & Grain methods)
    MP  (exp database):  -34 deg C
    BP  (exp database):  186.1 deg C
    VP  (exp database):  1.96E-01 mm Hg at 25 deg C

 Water Solubility Estimate from Log Kow (WSKOW v1.41):
    Water Solubility at 25 deg C (mg/L):  1.86e+004
       log Kow used: 1.39 (expkow database)
       no-melting pt equation used
     Water Sol (Exper. database match) =  2.4e+004 mg/L (25 deg C)
        Exper. Ref:  YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)

 Water Sol Estimate from Fragments:
    Wat Sol (v1.01 est) =  32125 mg/L
    Wat Sol (Exper. database match) =  24000.00
       Exper. Ref:  YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)

 ECOSAR Class Program (ECOSAR v0.99h):
    Class(es) found:
       Neutral Organics-acid

 Henrys Law Constant (25 deg C) [HENRYWIN v3.10]:
   Bond Method :   1.28E-006  atm-m3/mole
   Group Method:   8.29E-007  atm-m3/mole
   Exper Database: 4.72E-07  atm-m3/mole
 Henrys LC [VP/WSol estimate using EPI values]:  5.180E-006 atm-m3/mole

 Log Octanol-Air Partition Coefficient (25 deg C) [KOAWIN v1.10]:
  Log Kow used:  1.39  (exp database)
  Log Kaw used:  -4.715  (exp database)
      Log Koa (KOAWIN v1.10 estimate):  6.105
      Log Koa (experimental database):  None

 Probability of Rapid Biodegradation (BIOWIN v4.10):
   Biowin1 (Linear Model)         :   0.8800
   Biowin2 (Non-Linear Model)     :   0.9828
 Expert Survey Biodegradation Results:
   Biowin3 (Ultimate Survey Model):   3.6364  (days-weeks  )
   Biowin4 (Primary Survey Model) :   4.3550  (hours-days  )
 MITI Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin5 (MITI Linear Model)    :   0.7381
   Biowin6 (MITI Non-Linear Model):   0.8828
 Anaerobic Biodegradation Probability:
   Biowin7 (Anaerobic Linear Model):  0.7035
 Ready Biodegradability Prediction:   YES

Hydrocarbon Biodegradation (BioHCwin v1.01):
    Structure incompatible with current estimation method!

 Sorption to aerosols (25 Dec C)[AEROWIN v1.00]:
  Vapor pressure (liquid/subcooled):  26.1 Pa (0.196 mm Hg)
  Log Koa (Koawin est  ): 6.105
   Kp (particle/gas partition coef. (m3/ug)):
       Mackay model           :  1.15E-007 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  3.13E-007 
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi):
       Junge-Pankow model     :  4.15E-006 
       Mackay model           :  9.18E-006 
       Octanol/air (Koa) model:  2.5E-005 

 Atmospheric Oxidation (25 deg C) [AopWin v1.92]:
   Hydroxyl Radicals Reaction:
      OVERALL OH Rate Constant =   4.1108 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec
      Half-Life =     2.602 Days (12-hr day; 1.5E6 OH/cm3)
      Half-Life =    31.223 Hrs
   Ozone Reaction:
      No Ozone Reaction Estimation
   Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi): 6.67E-006 (Junge,Mackay)
    Note: the sorbed fraction may be resistant to atmospheric oxidation

 Soil Adsorption Coefficient (PCKOCWIN v1.66):
      Koc    :  4.084
      Log Koc:  0.611 

 Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]:
    Rate constants can NOT be estimated for this structure!

 Bioaccumulation Estimates from Log Kow (BCFWIN v2.17):
   Log BCF from regression-based method = 0.500 (BCF = 3.162)
       log Kow used: 1.39 (expkow database)

 Volatilization from Water:
    Henry LC:  4.72E-007 atm-m3/mole  (Henry experimental database)
    Half-Life from Model River:       1255  hours   (52.28 days)
    Half-Life from Model Lake : 1.377E+004  hours   (573.8 days)

 Removal In Wastewater Treatment:
    Total removal:               1.97  percent
    Total biodegradation:        0.09  percent
    Total sludge adsorption:     1.85  percent
    Total to Air:                0.03  percent
      (using 10000 hr Bio P,A,S)

 Level III Fugacity Model:
           Mass Amount    Half-Life    Emissions
            (percent)        (hr)       (kg/hr)
   Air       4.39            62.4         1000       
   Water     33.9            208          1000       
   Soil      61.6            416          1000       
   Sediment  0.0715          1.87e+003    0          
     Persistence Time: 292 hr




                    

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